Now showing items 21-40 of 100159

    • First peripheral drug-eluting stent clinical results from China: 1-year outcomes of the Zilver PTX China study

      Ye, W.; Böhme, T.; Fu, W.; Liu, C.; Zhang, X.; Liu, P.; Zhang, J.; Zou, Y.; Lu, X.; Lottes, A.E.; et al. (Frontiers Media S.A., 2022)
      Purpose: The benefit of using the Zilver PTX drug-eluting stent (DES) in superficial femoral artery (SFA) lesions has been demonstrated in multiple clinical studies. This prospective, multicenter study evaluated the 1-year safety and effectiveness of the DES for the treatment of femoropopliteal lesions in a Chinese patient population. Methods: Patients with a single de novo or restenotic SFA lesion ≤140 mm and a Rutherford classification of 2 to 4 were treated with the DES. The primary endpoint was primary patency assessed by duplex ultrasound at 1-year. Secondary endpoints included adverse events, event-free survival (EFS), and freedom from target lesion revascularization (TLR). Clinical outcomes included Rutherford classification, ankle-brachial index (ABI), and the walking impairment questionnaire (WIQ). Results: In this study, 178 patients with symptomatic peripheral artery disease were enrolled at nine institutions in China. The average lesion length was 79.0 ± 48.6 mm (range 14.8–245.4 mm) and 50.0% of lesions were total occlusions. The 1-year primary patency rate was 81.9%. Covariate analysis revealed that lesion length (p < 0.01) was the only significant factor for patency. No paclitaxel-related adverse events or amputations were reported. The 1-year rate for EFS was 94.9% and freedom from TLR was 95.5%. Through 1-year, treatment with the DES resulted in statistically significant improvement in ABI and WIQ scores compared with pre-procedure (p < 0.001). Clinical improvement of at least 1 Rutherford class was achieved in 142 of 174 patients (81.6%). Conclusion: This study showed promising short-term results for the treatment of SFA lesions with Zilver PTX DES in Chinese patients. Unique identifier:, identifier: NCT02171962. Copyright © 2022 Ye, Böhme, Fu, Liu, Zhang, Liu, Zhang, Zou, Lu, Lottes, O'Leary, Zeller and Dake.
    • Professional-Collector Collaboration: Global Challenges and Solutions

      Thomas, S.; Wessman, A.; Pitblado, B.L.; Rowe, M.; Schroeder, B.; School of Anthropology, University of Arizona (Cambridge University Press, 2022)
      This introductory article foregrounds the articles in this special issue, Professional-Collector Collaboration: Global Challenges and Solutions, complementing the special issue Professional-Collector Collaboration Moving beyond Debate to Best Practice, also published in Advances in Archaeological Practice. The articles that we introduce here cover examples and case studies from European settings such as Norway, the Czech Republic, England, Wales, Finland, and Belgium - places that have been exploring how to respond to the challenge of working meaningfully with collectors and finders of archaeological artifacts, especially metal detectorists. These are joined by examples from Australia, Mexico, Uruguay, and even the United States, in the context of handling - at first glance - problematic collections originating from elsewhere. The articles are diverse in their settings and the challenges they describe, but they point to the need for participatory and democratic approaches to archaeological heritage and the different publics that engage with it. Copyright © The Author(s), 2022. Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of Society for American Archaeology.
    • Sedimentary records and chronology of the late Pleistocene overbank flooding in the Yellow River source area, NE Tibetan Plateau

      Zhu, Y.; Wang, H.; Zhang, Y.; Huang, C.C.; Zha, X.; Qiu, H.; Jia, Y.-N.; Xiao, Q.; Chen, D.; Lin, X.; et al. (Frontiers Media S.A., 2022)
      Paleohydrological investigations were carried out in the Yellow River source area on the northeast (NE) Tibetan Plateau. During our fieldwork investigations, two units of overbank flood deposits (OFD) were found in the Maqu-Kesheng reach. These OFD units were studied using a multi-index approach, including magnetic susceptibility, hygroscopic water, grain size distribution and micro-morphological features. It can be inferred that they have recorded two episodes of overbank flooding of the Yellow River. Using the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and AMS 14C dating techniques, the first episode was dated to 34,680 ± 1880-29000 ± 1790 a and correlated with the late Marine Isotope Stage 3a (MIS 3a) with a warm and wet climate. The second episode occurred at 16,500 ± 1,250-14000 ± 1,280 a, which is coincided with the Bølling-Allerød warm stage during the last deglaciation, a period of coexisting global warming and rapidly shrinking ice sheets. At these two periods, the water was mainly derived from the accelerated melting of mountain glaciers surrounding the basin and/or the large-scale precipitation, which led to the overbank flooding events. At the same time, the related overbank flood deposits were interbedded within glacial outwash/flashflood deposits in the valley bottom of the Yellow River, which intensified the valley aggradation. These results are of great significance in enriching the paleoflood records in the Yellow River source area, recognizing the effect of river system on the development of valley landform, as well as understanding the hydro-climatic response of the Tibetan Plateau to global climate warming occurring presently. Copyright © 2022 Zhu, Wang, Zhang, Huang, Zha, Qiu, Jia, Xiao, Chen, Lin and Liu.
    • Experimental constraints on the stability and oscillation of water vapor film—a precursor for phreatomagmatic and explosive submarine eruptions

      Sonder, I.; Moitra, P.; Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona (Frontiers Media S.A., 2022)
      Pre-mixing of magma and external water plays a key role in driving explosive phreatomagmatic and submarine volcanic eruptions. A thin film of water vapor forms at the magma–water interface as soon as hot magma comes in direct contact with the cold water (Leidenfrost effect). The presence of a stable vapor film drives efficient mixing and mingling between magma and water, as well as magma and wet and water-saturated sediments. Such mixing occurs before explosive molten fuel–coolant type interactions. Using high-temperature laboratory experiments, we investigate the effect of magma and water temperatures on the stability of vapor film, which has not been performed systematically for a magmatic heat source. The experiments were performed with re-melted volcanic rock material, from which spherically-shaped rock samples were produced. These samples were heated to 1,110°C and then submerged in a water pool with a constant temperature (3–93°C). The experiments were recorded on video, and, synchronously, sample and water temperatures were measured using thermocouples. The time-dependent thickness of the vapor film was measured from the video material. The vapor film tends to oscillate with time on the order of 102 Hz. We find that the vertical collapse rates of vapor films along the sample–water interfaces are 13.7 mm s−1 and 4.2 mm s−1 for water temperatures of 3.0°C and 65°C, respectively. For a given initial sample temperature, the thickness and stability time scales decrease with decreasing water temperature, which has implications for the efficiency of pre-mixing required for explosive eruptions. Using thermodynamics and previously measured material parameters, it is shown that a sudden collapse of the vapor film can start brittle fragmentation of the melt and thus serves as the starting point of thermohydraulic explosions. Copyright © 2022 Sonder and Moitra.
    • The Flp type IV pilus operon of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is expressed upon interaction with macrophages and alveolar epithelial cells

      Alteri, C.J.; Rios-Sarabia, N.; De la Cruz, M.A.; González-y-Merchand, J.A.; Soria-Bustos, J.; Maldonado-Bernal, C.; Cedillo, M.L.; Yáñez-Santos, J.A.; Martínez-Laguna, Y.; Torres, J.; et al. (Frontiers Media S.A., 2022)
      The genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) harbors the genetic machinery for assembly of the Fimbrial low-molecular-weight protein (Flp) type IV pilus. Presumably, the Flp pilus is essential for pathogenesis. However, it remains unclear whether the pili genes are transcribed in culture or during infection of host cells. This study aimed to shed light on the expression of the Flp pili-assembly genes (tadZ, tadA, tadB, tadC, flp, tadE, and tadF) in Mtb growing under different growth conditions (exponential phase, stationary phase, and dormancy NRP1 and NRP2 phases induced by hypoxia), during biofilm formation, and in contact with macrophages and alveolar epithelial cells. We found that expression of tad/flp genes was significantly higher in the stationary phase than in exponential or NRP1 or NRP2 phases suggesting that the bacteria do not require type IV pili during dormancy. Elevated gene expression levels were recorded when the bacilli were in contact for 4 h with macrophages or epithelial cells, compared to mycobacteria propagated alone in the cultured medium. An antibody raised against a 12-mer peptide derived from the Flp pilin subunit detected the presence of Flp pili on intra- and extracellular bacteria infecting eukaryotic cells. Altogether, these are compelling data showing that the Flp pili genes are expressed during the interaction of Mtb with host cells and highlight a role for Flp pili in colonization and invasion of the host, subsequently promoting bacterial survival during dormancy. Copyright © 2022 Alteri, Rios-Sarabia, De la Cruz, González-y-Merchand, Soria-Bustos, Maldonado-Bernal, Cedillo, Yáñez-Santos, Martínez-Laguna, Torres, Friedman, Girón and Ares.
    • An integrated approach to panel width, fleet size, and change-out time optimization in room-and-pillar mines

      Anani, A.; Nyaaba, W.; Córdova, E.; Department of Mining and Geological Engineering, University of Arizon (South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 2022)
      Optimization of panels, haulage fleet, and waiting area involves deterministic and low-fidelity methods and experiential knowledge. The process is challenging because coal recovery and operational capabilities must be considered in the solution. The approach in this manuscript comprises the development of an integrated stochastic simulation model of a coal room-and-pillar system that addresses these challenges. The decision variables evaluated are panel width, number of shuttle cars, and change-out time (COT). The results show that the mine should implement the shortest possible COT, decreasing the cycle time and thereby increasing productivity and continuous miner (CM) utilization. The highest productivity and CM utilization for a fleet size of three shuttle cars is found in the 15-entry panel width. For the evaluated fleet sizes, the 19-entry panel width is optimal for the four and five shuttle cars. Among the three variables studied, panel width and fleet size had the most significant effects (5% increase) on the CM productivity, cycle time, and utilization. © 2022 South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. All rights reserved.
    • Re-Training of Convolutional Neural Networks for Glottis Segmentation in Endoscopic High-Speed Videos

      Döllinger, M.; Schraut, T.; Henrich, L.A.; Chhetri, D.; Echternach, M.; Johnson, A.M.; Kunduk, M.; Maryn, Y.; Patel, R.R.; Samlan, R.; et al. (MDPI, 2022)
      Endoscopic high-speed video (HSV) systems for visualization and assessment of vocal fold dynamics in the larynx are diverse and technically advancing. To consider resulting “concepts shifts” for neural network (NN)-based image processing, re-training of already trained and used NNs is necessary to allow for sufficiently accurate image processing for new recording modalities. We propose and discuss several re-training approaches for convolutional neural networks (CNN) being used for HSV image segmentation. Our baseline CNN was trained on the BAGLS data set (58,750 images). The new BAGLS-RT data set consists of additional 21,050 images from previously unused HSV systems, light sources, and different spatial resolutions. Results showed that increasing data diversity by means of preprocessing already improves the segmentation accuracy (mIoU + 6.35%). Subsequent re-training further increases segmentation performance (mIoU + 2.81%). For re-training, finetuning with dynamic knowledge distillation showed the most promising results. Data variety for training and additional re-training is a helpful tool to boost HSV image segmentation quality. However, when performing re-training, the phenomenon of catastrophic forgetting should be kept in mind, i.e., adaption to new data while forgetting already learned knowledge. © 2022 by the authors.
    • Assessment of the Effects of COVID-19 Pandemic Stay-at-Home Measures on Potable Water Consumption Patterns, Location, and Financial Impacts for Water Utilities in Colombian Cities

      Ortiz, C.; Salcedo, C.; Saldarriaga, J.; Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering and Mechanics, University of Arizona (MDPI, 2022)
      Several studies suggest that social distancing measures due to the COVID-19 pandemic have affected the water sector, specifically regarding its demand and supply. Given the importance of hygiene practices, this effect is heightened by the role that potable water availability has in tackling the spread of the virus. This study aimed to assess the impact of the pandemic on the water consumption patterns and location in four Colombian cities known for their important commercial, industrial, academic, and touristic features. Results exhibit diverse diminishing water consumption trends alongside COVID-19 because of different attributes of the cities (e.g., size, environmental, socioeconomic, and sociocultural characteristics). For instance, the touristic case study has been the most affected because of travel restrictions, with an average commercial demand drop of 32%. In contrast, industrial case studies have had a rapid recovery in water demand, with average industrial drops of 11–14% compared to 20–25% in non-industrial cities. These water demand changes do not affect only the operation of water utilities, but also their finances. Economic losses were estimated at 3.7%, 2.4%, and 6.4% of the expected incomes for the first 14 months of the pandemic for the case studies in this paper. Under a changing environment, understanding these changes and challenges is fundamental for ensuring that water systems are resilient in any unexpected situation. © 2022 by the authors.
    • Ecohydrology of Green Stormwater Infrastructure in Shrinking Cities: A Two-Year Case Study of a Retrofitted Bioswale in Detroit, MI

      Papuga, S.A.; Seifert, E.; Kopeck, S.; Hwang, K.; Department of Hydrology and Atmospheric Science, University of Arizona (MDPI, 2022)
      Stormwater management is of great importance in large shrinking cities with aging and outdated infrastructure. Maintenance of vegetated areas, particularly referred to as green infrastructure, is often aimed at mitigating flooding and the urban heat island effect by stormwater storage and evaporative cooling, respectively. This approach has been applied in large cities as a cost-effective and eco-friendly solution. However, the ecohydrological processes and how the ecohydrology influences the function of green infrastructure and its potential to provide those ecosystem services are not well understood. In this study, continuous field measurements including air temperature, stomatal conductance, and phenocam images were taken in a 308 m2 bioswale retrofitted into a 4063 m2 parking lot on the Wayne State University campus in Detroit, Michigan over a two-year period. Our results suggest that plant characteristics such as water use efficiency impact the ecohydrological processes within bioswales and that retrofitted bioswales will need to be adapted over time to meet environmental demands to allow for full and sustained success. Therefore, projected shifts in precipitation regime change are expected to affect the performance of green infrastructure, and each bioswale needs to be developed and engineered to be able to adapt to changing rainfall patterns. © 2022 by the authors.
    • Prevalence and Outcomes of COVID-19 among Hematology/Oncology Patients and Providers of a Community-Facing Health System during the B1.1.529 (“Omicron”) SARS-CoV-2 Variant Wave

      Kareff, S.A.; Khan, A.; Barreto-Coelho, P.; Iyer, S.G.; Pico, B.; Stanchina, M.; Dutcher, G.; Monteiro de Oliveira Novaes, J.; Nallagangula, A.; Lopes, G.; et al. (MDPI, 2022)
      (1) Background: the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic continues, and patients actively receiving chemotherapy are known to be at enhanced risk for developing symptomatic disease with poorer outcomes. Our study evaluated the prevalence of COVID-19 among patients and providers of our community-facing county health system during the B1.1.529 (“Omicron”) COVID-19 variant wave. (2) Methods: We retrospectively analyzed patients that received care and clinical providers whom worked at the Jackson Memorial Hospital Hematology/Oncology clinic in Miami, Florida, USA, from 1 December 2021 through 30 April 2022. We assessed demographic variables and quality outcomes among patients. (3) Results: 1031 patients and 18 providers were retrospectively analyzed. 90 patients tested positive for COVID-19 (8.73%), while 6 providers tested positive (33.3%) (p = 0.038). There were 4 (10.3%) COVID-19-related deaths (and another outside our study timeframe) and 39 non-COVID-19-related deaths (89.7%) in the patient population (p = 0.77). COVID-19 accounted for 4.44% of our clinic’s total mortality, and delayed care in 64.4% of patients. (4) Conclusions: The prevalence of COVID-19 positivity in our patient cohort mirrored local, state, and national trends, however a statistically significant greater proportion of our providers tested positive. Almost two-thirds of patients experienced a cancer treatment delay, significantly impacting oncologic care. © 2022 by the authors.
    • Understanding Intensity–Duration–Frequency (IDF) Curves Using IMERG Sub-Hourly Precipitation against Dense Gauge Networks

      Lau, A.; Behrangi, A.; Department of Hydrology and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Arizona (MDPI, 2022)
      The design storm derived from intensity–duration–frequency (IDF) curves is the main input for hydrologic analysis or hydraulic design for flood control. The regions with higher flood risks due to extreme precipitation are often deficient in precipitation gauges. This study presents a detailed evaluation of IDF curves derived using IMERG Final half-hourly precipitation (V06), fitted with the widely used CDFs: Gumbel and MLE, Gumbel and MM, Pearson 3, and GEV. As benchmarks and following the same method, we also derived IDF curves using areal average gridded precipitation constructed from two dense gauges networks over (1) the WegenerNET Feldbach region in the Alpine forelands of Austria and (2) the gauge network of the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed, in a semiarid region of the United States. In both regions, the frequency analysis for return periods between 2 and 100 years was based on half-hourly rainfall and compared at a grid-scale with a spatial resolution of IMERG, 0.1° × 0.1° lat/lon. The impact of order in which the gridded gauge-based precipitation average is performed within an IMERG grid was evaluated by computing two different Annual Maximum Series (AMS). In one, the average was computed before obtaining the AMS (AB-AMS), and in the other, the average was computed after obtaining the AMS for each gauge grid (AA-AMS) within the IMERG grid. The evaluation revealed that IMERG AMS agrees better with AB-AMS than AA-AMS for the two study regions. Lastly, it was found that the use of Gumbel distribution in calculating IMERG IDF curves results in better agreement with the ground truth than the use of the other three distributions studied here. The outcomes should provide valuable knowledge for the application of IMERG precipitation over regions with sparse gauges. © 2022 by the authors.
    • A qualitative study to explore the acceptability and usefulness of personalized biofeedback to motivate physical activity in cancer survivors

      Brannon, G.E.; Ray, M.; Cho, P.; Baum, M.; Beg, M.S.; Bevers, T.; Schembre, S.M.; Basen-Engquist, K.; Liao, Y.; Department of Family and Community Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Arizona (SAGE Publications Inc., 2022)
      Objective: Many cancer survivors do not meet recommended levels of exercise, despite the benefits physical activity offers. This study aimed to understand experiences of insufficiently active overweight/obese breast or colorectal cancer survivors, in efforts to (1) examine regular physical activity barriers, and (2) determine perceptions and acceptability of a remotely delivered physical activity intervention utilizing wearable sensors and personalized feedback messages. Methods: In-person and virtual small group interviews were conducted engaging overweight/obese cancer survivors (n = 16, 94% female, 94% breast cancer survivors) in discussions resulting in 314 pages of transcribed data analyzed by multiple coders. Results: All participants expressed needing to increase physical activity, identifying lack of motivation centering on survivorship experiences and symptom management as the most salient barrier. They indicated familiarity with activity trackers (i.e., Fitbit) and expressed interest in biosensors (i.e., continuous glucose monitors [CGMs]) as CGMs show biological metrics in real-time. Participants reported (1) personalized feedback messages can improve motivation and accountability; (2) CGM acceptability is high given survivors’ medical history; and (3) glucose data is a relevant health indicator and they appreciated integrated messages (between Fitbit and CGM) in demonstrating how behaviors immediately affect one's body. Conclusions: This study supports the use of wearable biosensors and m-health interventions to promote physical activity in cancer survivors. Glucose-based biofeedback provides relevant and motivating information for cancer survivors regarding their daily activity levels by demonstrating the immediate effects of physical activity. Integrating biofeedback into physical activity interventions could be an effective behavioral change strategy to promote a healthy lifestyle in cancer survivors. © The Author(s) 2022.
    • Use of oral diabetes medications and the risk of incident dementia in US veterans aged ≥60 years with type 2 diabetes

      Tang, X.; Brinton, R.D.; Chen, Z.; Farland, L.V.; Klimentidis, Y.; Migrino, R.; Reaven, P.; Rodgers, K.; Zhou, J.J.; Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Arizona Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health; et al. (BMJ, 2022)
      INTRODUCTION: Studies have reported that antidiabetic medications (ADMs) were associated with lower risk of dementia, but current findings are inconsistent. This study compared the risk of dementia onset in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) treated with sulfonylurea (SU) or thiazolidinedione (TZD) to patients with T2D treated with metformin (MET). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This is a prospective observational study within a T2D population using electronic medical records from all sites of the Veterans Affairs Healthcare System. Patients with T2D who initiated ADM from January 1, 2001, to December 31, 2017, were aged ≥60 years at the initiation, and were dementia-free were identified. A SU monotherapy group, a TZD monotherapy group, and a control group (MET monotherapy) were assembled based on prescription records. Participants were required to take the assigned treatment for at least 1 year. The primary outcome was all-cause dementia, and the two secondary outcomes were Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia, defined by International Classification of Diseases (ICD), 9th Revision, or ICD, 10th Revision, codes. The risks of developing outcomes were compared using propensity score weighted Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: Among 559 106 eligible veterans (mean age 65.7 (SD 8.7) years), the all-cause dementia rate was 8.2 cases per 1000 person-years (95% CI 6.0 to 13.7). After at least 1 year of treatment, TZD monotherapy was associated with a 22% lower risk of all-cause dementia onset (HR 0.78, 95% CI 0.75 to 0.81), compared with MET monotherapy, and 11% lower for MET and TZD dual therapy (HR 0.89, 95% CI 0.86 to 0.93), whereas the risk was 12% higher for SU monotherapy (HR 1.12 95% CI 1.09 to 1.15). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with T2D, TZD use was associated with a lower risk of dementia, and SU use was associated with a higher risk compared with MET use. Supplementing SU with either MET or TZD may partially offset its prodementia effects. These findings may help inform medication selection for elderly patients with T2D at high risk of dementia. © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2022. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.
    • Flexing the principal gradient of the cerebral cortex to suit changing semantic task demands

      Gao, Z.; Zheng, L.; Krieger-Redwood, K.; Halai, A.; Margulies, D.S.; Smallwood, J.; Jefferies, E.; Department of Psychology, University of Arizona (eLife Sciences Publications Ltd, 2022)
      Understanding how thought emerges from the topographical structure of the cerebral cortex is a primary goal of cognitive neuroscience. Recent work has revealed a principal gradient of intrinsic connectivity capturing the separation of sensory-motor cortex from transmodal regions of the default mode network (DMN); this is thought to facilitate memory-guided cognition. However, studies have not explored how this dimension of connectivity changes when conceptual retrieval is controlled to suit the context. We used gradient decomposition of informational connectivity in a semantic association task to establish how the similarity in connectivity across brain regions changes during familiar and more original patterns of retrieval. Multivoxel activation patterns at opposite ends of the principal gradient were more divergent when participants retrieved stronger associations; therefore, when long-term semantic information is sufficient for ongoing cognition, regions supporting heteromodal memory are functionally separated from sensory-motor experience. In contrast, when less related concepts were linked, this dimension of connectivity was reduced in strength as semantic control regions separated from the DMN to generate more flexible and original responses. We also observed fewer dimensions within the neural response towards the apex of the principal gradient when strong associations were retrieved, reflecting less complex or varied neural coding across trials and participants. In this way, the principal gradient explains how semantic cognition is organised in the human cerebral cortex: the separation of DMN from sensory-motor systems is a hallmark of the retrieval of strong conceptual links that are culturally shared. © Gao et al.
    • Knockout of ABC transporter gene ABCA2 confers resistance to Bt toxin Cry2Ab in Helicoverpa zea

      Fabrick, J.A.; Heu, C.C.; LeRoy, D.M.; DeGain, B.A.; Yelich, A.J.; Unnithan, G.C.; Wu, Y.; Li, X.; Carrière, Y.; Tabashnik, B.E.; et al. (Nature Research, 2022)
      Evolution of pest resistance reduces the benefits of widely cultivated genetically engineered crops that produce insecticidal proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Better understanding of the genetic basis of pest resistance to Bt crops is needed to monitor, manage, and counter resistance. Previous work shows that in several lepidopterans, resistance to Bt toxin Cry2Ab is associated with mutations in the gene encoding the ATP-binding cassette protein ABCA2. The results here show that mutations introduced by CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing in the Helicoverpa zea (corn earworm or bollworm) gene encoding ABCA2 (HzABCA2) can cause resistance to Cry2Ab. Disruptive mutations in HzABCA2 facilitated the creation of two Cry2Ab-resistant strains. A multiple concentration bioassay with one of these strains revealed it had > 200-fold resistance to Cry2Ab relative to its parental susceptible strain. All Cry2Ab-resistant individuals tested had disruptive mutations in HzABCA2. We identified five disruptive mutations in HzABCA2 gDNA. The most common mutation was a 4-bp deletion in the expected Cas9 guide RNA target site. The results here indicate that HzABCA2 is a leading candidate for monitoring Cry2Ab resistance in field populations of H. zea. © 2022, This is a U.S. Government work and not under copyright protection in the US; foreign copyright protection may apply.
    • Association Between the Affordable Care Act Medicaid Expansion and Receipt of Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy by Race and Ethnicity

      Mwansa, H.; Barry, I.; Knapp, S.M.; Mazimba, S.; Calhoun, E.; Sweitzer, N.K.; Breathett, K.; Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Sarver Heart Center, University of Arizona; Statistics Consulting Lab, Bio5 Institute, University of Arizona (American Heart Association Inc., 2022)
      BACKGROUND: Black and Hispanic patients are less likely to receive cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) than White patients. Medicaid expansion has been associated with increased access to cardiovascular care among racial and ethnic groups with higher prevalence of underinsurance. It is unknown whether the Medicaid expansion was associated with increased receipt of CRT by race and ethnicity. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Data State Inpatient Databases from 19 states and Washington, DC, we analyzed 1061 patients from early-adopter states (Medicaid expansion by January 2014) and 745 patients from nonadopter states (no implementation 2013–2014). Estimates of change in census-adjusted rates of CRT with or without defibrillator by race and ethnicity and Medicaid adopter status 1 year before and after January 2014 were conducted using a quasi-Poisson regression model. Following the Medicaid expansion, the rate of CRT did not significantly change among Black individuals from early-adopter states (1.07 [95% CI, 0.78–1.48]) or nonadopter states (0.79 [95% CI, 0.57–1.09]). There were no significant changes in rates of CRT among Hispanic individuals from early-adopter states (0.99 [95% CI, 0.70–1.38]) or nonadopter states (1.01 [95% CI, 0.65–1.57]). There was a 34% increase in CRT rates among White individuals from early-adopter states (1.34 [95% CI, 1.05–1.70]), and no significant change among White individuals from nonadopter states (0.77 [95% CI, 0.59–1.02]). The change in CRT rates among White individuals was associated with the timing of the Medicaid implementation (P=0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Among states participating in Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Data State Inpatient Databases, implementation of Medicaid expansion was associated with increase in CRT rates among White individuals residing in states that adopted the Medicaid expansion policy. Further work is needed to address disparities in CRT among Black and Hispanic patients. © 2022 The Authors.
    • Marine subsidies produce cactus forests on desert islands

      Wilder, B.T.; Becker, A.T.; Dettman, D.L.; College of Education, University of Arizona; Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona (Nature Research, 2022)
      In island systems, nitrogen-rich seabird guano is a marine subsidy that can shape terrestrial plant communities. In zones of nutrient upwelling such as the Gulf of California, copious seabird guano is commonplace on bird islands. Several bird islands host regionally unique cactus forests, especially of the large columnar cactus, cardón (Pachycereus pringlei). We show that a chain of interactions across the land-sea interface yields an allochthonous input of nitrogen in the form of seabird guano, fueling the production of some of the densest cactus populations in the world. Fish, seabird, guano, soil, and cactus samples were taken from the representative seabird island of San Pedro Mártir for nitrogen stable isotope ratio measurements, which were compared to soil and cactus samples from other seabird and non-seabird Gulf islands and terrestrial ecosystems throughout the range of the cardón. Isla San Pedro Mártir δ15N values are distinctively high, ranging from fish + 17.7, seabird + 19.7, guano + 14.8, soil + 34.3 and cactus + 30.3 compared to average values across non-bird sites of + 13.0 (N = 213, S.D. = 3.7) for soil and + 9.8 (N = 212, S.D. = 3.4) for cactus. These δ15N values are among the highest ever reported for plants. Seabird island soil and cactus δ15N values were consistently significantly enriched relative to mainland and non-bird islands, a relationship expected due to the progressive volatilization of 14N rich ammonia from decomposing guano deposits. Our findings demonstrate that seabird-mediated marine nutrient deposits provide the source for solubilized nitrogen on desert islands, which stimulate terrestrial plant production in the cardón cactus beyond that seen in either mainland ecosystems or non-seabird islands. © 2022, The Author(s).
    • Whole genome sequence analysis of blood lipid levels in >66,000 individuals

      NHLBI Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) Consortium; University of Arizona (Nature Research, 2022)
      Blood lipids are heritable modifiable causal factors for coronary artery disease. Despite well-described monogenic and polygenic bases of dyslipidemia, limitations remain in discovery of lipid-associated alleles using whole genome sequencing (WGS), partly due to limited sample sizes, ancestral diversity, and interpretation of clinical significance. Among 66,329 ancestrally diverse (56% non-European) participants, we associate 428M variants from deep-coverage WGS with lipid levels; ~400M variants were not assessed in prior lipids genetic analyses. We find multiple lipid-related genes strongly associated with blood lipids through analysis of common and rare coding variants. We discover several associated rare non-coding variants, largely at Mendelian lipid genes. Notably, we observe rare LDLR intronic variants associated with markedly increased LDL-C, similar to rare LDLR exonic variants. In conclusion, we conducted a systematic whole genome scan for blood lipids expanding the alleles linked to lipids for multiple ancestries and characterize a clinically-relevant rare non-coding variant model for lipids. © 2022, The Author(s).
    • Blood pressure variability and plasma Alzheimer’s disease biomarkers in older adults

      Sible, I.J.; Yew, B.; Jang, J.Y.; Alitin, J.P.M.; Li, Y.; Gaubert, A.; Nguyen, A.; Dutt, S.; Blanken, A.E.; Ho, J.K.; et al. (Nature Research, 2022)
      Blood pressure variability is an emerging risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease in older adults, independent of average blood pressure levels. Growing evidence suggests increased blood pressure variability is linked to Alzheimer’s disease pathophysiology indexed by cerebrospinal fluid and positron emission tomography markers, but relationships with plasma Alzheimer’s disease markers have not been investigated. In this cross-sectional study of 54 community-dwelling older adults (aged 55–88, mean age 69.9 [8.2 SD]), elevated blood pressure variability over 5 min was associated with lower levels of plasma Aβ1–42 (standardized ß = − 0.36 [95% CI − 0.61, − 0.12]; p = 0.005; adjusted R2 = 0.28) and Aβ1–42: Aβ1–40 ratio (ß = − 0.49 [95% CI − 0.71, − 0.22]; p &lt; 0.001; adjusted R2 = 0.28), and higher levels of total tau (ß = 0.27 [95% CI 0.01, 0.54]; p = 0.04; adjusted R2 = 0.19) and Ptau181:Aβ1–42 ratio (ß = 0.26 [95% CI 0.02, 0.51]; p = 0.04; adjusted R2 = 0.22). Findings suggest higher blood pressure variability is linked to plasma biomarkers of increased Alzheimer’s disease pathophysiology. © 2022, The Author(s).
    • A predictive computational platform for optimizing the design of bioartificial pancreas devices

      Ernst, A.U.; Wang, L.-H.; Worland, S.C.; Marfil-Garza, B.A.; Wang, X.; Liu, W.; Chiu, A.; Kin, T.; O’Gorman, D.; Steinschneider, S.; et al. (Nature Research, 2022)
      The delivery of encapsulated islets or stem cell-derived insulin-producing cells (i.e., bioartificial pancreas devices) may achieve a functional cure for type 1 diabetes, but their efficacy is limited by mass transport constraints. Modeling such constraints is thus desirable, but previous efforts invoke simplifications which limit the utility of their insights. Herein, we present a computational platform for investigating the therapeutic capacity of generic and user-programmable bioartificial pancreas devices, which accounts for highly influential stochastic properties including the size distribution and random localization of the cells. We first apply the platform in a study which finds that endogenous islet size distribution variance significantly influences device potency. Then we pursue optimizations, determining ideal device structures and estimates of the curative cell dose. Finally, we propose a new, device-specific islet equivalence conversion table, and develop a surrogate machine learning model, hosted on a web application, to rapidly produce these coefficients for user-defined devices. © 2022, The Author(s).