Welcome to the Rangeland Ecology & Management archives. The journal Rangeland Ecology & Management (RE&M; v58, 2005-present) is the successor to the Journal of Range Management (JRM; v. 1-57, 1948-2004.) The archives provide public access, in a "rolling window" agreement with the Society for Range Management, to both titles (JRM and RE&M), from v.1 up to five years from the present year.

The most recent years of RE&M are available through membership in the Society for Range Management (SRM). Membership in SRM is a means to access current information and dialogue on rangeland management.

Your institution may also have access to current issues through library or institutional subscriptions.

Print ISSN: 0022-409x

Online ISSN: 1550-7424


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  • Influence of Grazing on Age Yield Interactions in Bitterbrush

    McConnell, B. R.; Smith, J. G. (Society for Range Management, 1977-03-01)
    Significant relationships were found between yield and age of bitterbrush. Individual plants that were heavily grazed during the spring and early summer produced more forage than plants that were moderately grazed during late summer and fall. Under the heavy grazing treatment, however, plant longevity was sharply reduced and fewer plants survived until the age of maximum production. As a result, only 88 kg/ha of air-dry forage was produced under heavy early-season grazing compared with 172 kg/ha under moderate late-season grazing.
  • Improving Gambel Oak Ranges for Elk and Mule Deer by Spraying with 2,4,5-TP

    Kufeld, R. C. (Society for Range Management, 1977-01-01)
    Areas of Gambel oak vegetation in northwestern Colorado were sprayed with 2,4,5-TP to evaluate effects on plant abundance and deer and elk use 2 and 5 years after treatment. Grasses increased in abundance 44% after 2 years; shrubs and forbs decreased 29 and 15%, respectively. After 5 years, grasses and shrubs were 17 and 7%, respectively, above pretreatment levels of abundance; forbs were 4% below. Total vegetation on the treated area decreased 4% after 2 years, while a 5% increase was recorded after 5 years. Elk and deer use on the sprayed area increased 73 and 16%, respectively, 2 years after spraying. After 5 years elk use was 11% above pretreatment levels and deer use was 21% below. If 2,4,5-TP is used to spray Gambel oak to modify plant composition and increase elk or deer use, the area should be resprayed at 3-year intervals, indefinitely, if the improved situation is to be maintained.
  • Herbicides and the Range Ecosystem: Residues, Research, and the Role of Rangemen

    Scifres, C. J. (Society for Range Management, 1977-03-01)
    Increasing sophistication in application techniques, herbicide chemistry, and related technology in conjunction with intensified public awareness of herbicide use on rangeland has provided the impetus for research on the fate of herbicides in the range ecosystem. The complexity of the range ecosystem in comparison to monocultural systems dictates that persons versed in range ecology and herbicide technology conduct necessary research and play a dominant role in interpretation of results. The role of the atmosphere, ecosystem surfaces, vegetation, soil, and water in herbicide transfer and dissipation from the range ecosystem are reviewed. Properly applied, herbicides applicable to range improvement programs provide excellent levels of weed and brush control without undue hazard to sensitive crops; do not endanger man, his livestock or wildlife; and, in most cases, are dissipated from the ecosystem during the growing season in which they are applied.
  • Fourwing Saltbush (Atriplex canescens) Propagation Techniques

    Wiesner, L. E.; Johnson, W. J. (Society for Range Management, 1977-03-01)
    Fourwing saltbush [Atriplex canescens (Pursh) Nutt] is cross-pollinated and therefore has a wide genetic base. This characteristic makes it impossible to establish genetically similar research plots from seed. Consequently plots must be established from cuttings taken from desirable parent plants. The purpose of this study was to develop a method for rapid propagation of fourwing saltbush and to outline procedures for handling the propagules after rooting. Highest percentage of rooted cuttings was obtained when green succulent cuttings were soaked for 24 hours in a complete nutrient solution before being dipped in a woody species rooting compound and placed in a mist-bench for 5 weeks. Rooted cuttings should be transplanted into flats containing 75% sand and 25% peat and watered every 4-5 days to obtain maximum growth.
  • Forage Production in a Five-Year-Old Fertilized Slash Pine Plantation

    White, L. D. (Society for Range Management, 1977-03-01)
    Forest management companies in Florida currently fertilize approximately 10,000+ hectares of pine plantation annually. This paper reports excellent yields of bluestems with reduction in pineland threeawn 5 years after fertilization and establishment of slash pine on an Olustee-Mascottee-Leefield soil complex. Neither total understory live biomass nor total grass production was changed by fertilization. As much as a 250% increase in bluestem forage, preferred by cattle, was produced with several fertilizer combinations. In addition, understory plant responses in relation to the fertilized tree row indicate significant movement of fertilizers to adjacent unfertilized areas. Pineland threeawn, generally undesirable for cattle forage, was reduced with fertilization. The overall increase in bluestem forage resulting from plantation establishment and fertilization for increased tree yields is a complementary benefit valuable to forest landowners and cattle producers.
  • Forage Availability and Cattle Diets on the Texas Coastal Prairie

    Durham, A. J.; Kothmann, M. M. (Society for Range Management, 1977-03-01)
    Forage availability was determined at six intervals from December through April on the Texas Coastal Prairie. Warm-season perennial grasses were the dominant class of available forage. Forbs were not present in significant amounts. Cattle diets were also determined at six intervals using esophageally cannulated cows. Some Macartney rose, the only browse species available, was consumed by the cows from December through February. Warm-season grasses constituted the major portion of the diet throughout the study period. Cows showed the highest preference for brownseed paspalum and rattail smutgrass during the winter when other forage was dormant and these species contained green material. As each grass species initiated new growth in the spring, diet content of that species increased accordingly. Leaf:stem ratio of the diets was lowest from December to February and increased significantly in mid-March. The increase of leaf: stem ratio in the spring paralleled the availability of new forage growth.
  • Foods of Wild Horses, Deer, and Cattle in the Douglas Mountain Area, Colorado

    Hansen, R. M.; Clark, R. C.; Lawhorn, W. (Society for Range Management, 1977-03-01)
    The foods of wild horses, cattle, and mule deer were determined from 10 widely separated areas in the Douglas Mountain Area, northwest of Craig, Colo. The major foods of wild horses and cattle were needlegrasses, wheatgrasses, and brome; those of mule deer were sagebrush and mountainmahogany. The dietary overlap for wild horses and deer was 1%, cattle and deer 4%, and wild horses and cattle was 77%. Wild horses and cattle selected foods in a significantly similar order.
  • Food Relations of Wild Free-Roaming Horses to Livestock and Big Game, Red Desert, Wyoming

    Olsen, F. W.; Hansen, R. M. (Society for Range Management, 1977-01-01)
    The seasonal foods selected by wild horses, cattle, elk, domestic sheep, and antelope on the Red Desert in southwestern Wyoming were determined by microscopic inspection of fecal material. A large percentage of the diets of wild horses, cattle, and elk were the same species of grasses and sedges. Wheatgrass and needlegrass each made up 11 to 46% of the average annual diets of the herbivores studied except antelope. Sagebrush was the major food in antelope diets regardless of season. Saltbush was an important food in each herbivore's seasonal diet and was the major food of domestic sheep each season except summer. Each herbivore species ate a variety of plants each season, but the majority of the diet within a season usually consisted of fewer than six major plant species.
  • Food Habits of Mule Deer in a Semidesert Grass-Shrub Habitat

    Short, H. L. (Society for Range Management, 1977-05-01)
    Mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) selectively consumed cactus fruit, browse leaves and fruit, and forbs, when present, on semidesert grass-shrub habitats in southern Arizona. Plant species utilized were generally those that have invaded and proliferated on semidesert grasslands during the twentieth century. The seasonal diet seemed deficient in phosphorus, which may affect deer reproduction and general well being.
  • Fertilization Influences Cattle Diets on Blue Grama Range During Drought

    Allison, C. D.; Pieper, R. D.; Donart, G. B.; Wallace, J. D. (Society for Range Management, 1977-05-01)
    Botanical composition of cattle diets on fertilized and unfertilized blue grama rangeland was evaluated during drought by microhistological examination. Seventy-two percent of all species available were found in the diets. Grass comprised 62% of the yearly diets on the fertilized pasture compared with 73% on the unfertilized pasture. Annual forbs made up 18% of the diets on the fertilized pasture and 8% on the unfertilized pasture. There were no differences in perennial forb composition of the diets among the two pastures. Total grass consumption did not vary among seasons, but composition of individual species did. Blue grama provided the bulk of grass in summer and fall diets with mat muhly furnishing the majority of grass in diets during winter and spring. Perennial forbs were important in winter and spring diets. Annual forbs were major components of diets during summer and fall. Cattle consistently exhibited a greater preference for fertilized blue grama than for unfertilized blue grama. Preference trends for other plants were inconsistent and were influenced mostly by availability.
  • Evaluation of Deer Habitat on a Nutritional Basis

    Wallmo, O. C.; Carpenter, L. H.; Regelin, W. L.; Gill, R. B.; Baker, D. L. (Society for Range Management, 1977-03-01)
    Protein and energy requirements of deer and supplies of these nutrients in native forage are synthesized into a model to estimate carrying capacity of seasonal ranges of a migratory mule deer population in north central Colorado. The model indicates that summer forage will support many times the number of deer present, but winter forage will not sustain deer at any population level. Instead, duration and severity of winter determine the length of time deer can survive on these ranges. Habitat evaluation based on quantification of nutrient supplies and their availability offers a more logical alternative for evaluating deer winter ranges than traditional methods based on measurements of twig lengths of so-called "key" species.
  • Estimating Overwinter Bitterbrush Utilization from Twig Diameter Length Weight Relations

    Ferguson, R. B.; Marsden, M. A. (Society for Range Management, 1977-05-01)
    Overwinter utilization of bitterbrush by big game can be estimated from measurement of the basal diameter and remaining length of a random sample of 100 twigs collected at the end of the browsing season. In this method, regression equations are used to predict unbrowsed twig length or weight. The range manager is thus able to obtain estimates of big game use at less expense, or to survey more area for the same cost than with more time-consuming methods.
  • Effects of Subsoil Draining on Heather Moors in Scotland

    Phillips, J.; Moss, R. (Society for Range Management, 1977-01-01)
    Subsoil draining improved the growth and nutrient content of heather on Scottish moors covered by shallow peat, where drainage is impeded by an iron pan underneath. On such moors, subsoiling has significant advantages over conventional open drains.
  • Effects of Rest Following Defoliations on the Recovery of Several Range Species

    Trlica, M. J.; Buwai, M.; Menke, J. W. (Society for Range Management, 1977-01-01)
    Seven range species, western wheatgrass (Agropyron smithii), blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis), fourwing saltbush (Artiplex canescens), antelope bitterbrush (Purshia tridentata), fringed sagewort (Artemisia frigida), scarlet globemallow (Sphaeralcea coccinea), and little rabbitbrush (Chrysothamnus vicidiflorus) were heavily defoliated once to remove 90% of the foliage during each of four different phenological stages. Defoliation effects were evaluated in the fall after the defoliated plants had received from 14 to 26 months of rest. Western wheatgrass, little rabbitbrush, and scarlet globemallow made good recovery in herbage yield, vigor, and total nonstructural carbohydrates (TNC) after a single heavy defoliation followed by 14 to 26 months of rest. Vigor and TNC levels of defoliated blue grama plants were similar to those of the control plants after the rest period, but the rest period was insufficient for the recovery of herbage yield. Herbage yield, vigor, and TNC levels of antelope bitterbrush and fourwing saltbush plants were still less than those of the control plants after the rest period when plants had been previously defoliated during the seed shatter or near maturity phenological stage. A 14- to 26-month rest period was insufficient for complete recovery of herbage yield, vigor, and TNC levels of fringed sagewort subjected to a single heavy defoliation at any phenological stage. After 26 months of rest, antelope bitterbrush and fourwing saltbush previously subjected to three heavy defoliations during quiescence, fruit developing, and fall regrowth showed some recovery. However, six heavy defoliations were detrimental and plants made little recovery in herbage yield, vigor, and TNC even after more than 2 years of rest. Blue grama plants that received three heavy defoliations made fair recovery after 2 years of rest. However, more than 2 years of nonuse would be necessary before blue grama plants subjected to six heavy multiple defoliations could completely recover. Scarlet globemallow subjected to either three or six heavy defoliations and then given 26 months of rest had herbage yields, vigor, and TNC levels that were fairly similar to that of the control plants.

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