Welcome to the Rangeland Ecology & Management archives. The journal Rangeland Ecology & Management (RE&M; v58, 2005-present) is the successor to the Journal of Range Management (JRM; v. 1-57, 1948-2004.) The archives provide public access, in a "rolling window" agreement with the Society for Range Management, to both titles (JRM and RE&M), from v.1 up to five years from the present year.

The most recent years of RE&M are available through membership in the Society for Range Management (SRM). Membership in SRM is a means to access current information and dialogue on rangeland management.

Your institution may also have access to current issues through library or institutional subscriptions.

Print ISSN: 0022-409x

Online ISSN: 1550-7424


Contact the University Libraries Journal Team with questions about these journals.

Recent Submissions

  • Yield and quality of warm-season grasses in central Texas

    Sanderson, M. A.; Voigt, P.; Jones, R. M. (Society for Range Management, 1999-03-01)
    Warm-season perennial bunchgrasses frequently are used for hay and grazing in central Texas. We compared 6 alternative grasses with 2 more commonly grown species ['Ermelo' weeping lovegrass, (Eragrostis curvula (Schrad.) Nees var. curvula Nees) and 'Selection-75' kleingrass (Panicum coloratum L.] on 2 soils during 2 years. Grasses were transplanted into field plots at Stephenville and Temple, Tex. 1993 and harvested 3 times in 1994 and 1995. Weeping lovegrass and 'WW-B.Dahl' old world bluestem [Bothriochloa bladhii (Retz) S.T. Blake] were the highest yielding (P < 0.05) grasses and averaged 9,350 and 7,630 kg dry matter ha(-1) in 1994 and 1995, respectively. 'Irene' tufted digitgrass (Digitaria eriantha Stued.) and kleingrass produced similar (P > 0.05) yields (6,560 and 6,340 kg dry matter ha(-1)). Experimental line 409-704 buffelgrass [Cenchrus ciliaris L. syn. Pennisetum ciliare (L.) Link], 'Carostan' flaccidgrass (Pennisetum flaccidum Greisb.), 'Palar' Wilman lovegrass (Eragrostis superba Peyr.), and P.I. 269961 Oriental pennisetum (Pennisetum orientale Rich) yielded less than 3,000 kg dry matter ha(-1) at Stephenville and were invaded by weeds. Tillers per plant generally explained most of the yield differences as plant density was held constant. Ermelo lovegrass and WW-B.Dahl old world bluestem produced 2 to 3 times more tillers plant(-1) than other grasses. Concentrations of neutral detergent fiber were higher (P < 0.05) in digitgrass and the lovegrasses than in other grasses (39 vs 36% of dry matter). These data indicate that WW-B.Dahl old world bluestem and Irene tufted digit-grass should be useful in forage-livestock systems in central Texas.
  • Viewpoint: The range utilization concept, allocation arrays, and range management science

    Scarnecchia, D. L. (Society for Range Management, 1999-03-01)
    The transition of range utilization from a qualitative concept in the early years of range management to a quantitative concept in today's range management science has been problematic. This paper (1) evaluates the origins, confoundings, and interpretations of range utilization in range management science, (2) presents an explicit allocation array of variables to replace the range utilization concept, and (3) examines the role of range utilization specifically, and management science generally in the present and future message of the Society for Range Management, and in range management science.
  • Viewpoint: Implications of spatial variability for estimating forage use

    Bork, E. W.; Werner, S. J. (Society for Range Management, 1999-03-01)
    Estimates of forage use are often the basis for important management decisions (e.g., determining carrying capacity and setting stocking rates). Using both hypothetical and field data, we examine the impacts of rangeland spatial heterogeneity and various analysis protocols on estimates of forage use. When using the paired-subplot method, we recommend that the size of caged and uncaged subplots accommodate local heterogeneity to ensure accurate forage use estimates. We further recommend that the type of analysis procedure be determined by the context of the question; phytomass differences when an investigation is herbivore-focused, and relative utilization for plant community studies. All investigations of forage use should employ (field original, or untransformed) data to assess natural variability in forage production and to minimize the degree of confoundment between forage use and spatial heterogeneity. When analyzing these data, non-directional, 2-tailed statistical tests are recommended, particularly in arid (and thus, spatially variable) environments, to avoid bias in the estimate and to facilitate reliable interpretation of the data.
  • Stocker cattle response to grazing management in tallgrass prairie

    McCollum, F. T.; Gillen, R. L.; Karges, B. R.; Hodges, M. E. (Society for Range Management, 1999-03-01)
    The effects of stocking rate and grazing method on performance of yearling beef cattle grazing tallgrass prairies in north-central Oklahoma were evaluated from 1989 to 1994. Pastures dominated by big bluestem [Andropogon gerardii Vitman], little bluestem [Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash], and indiangrass [Sorghastrum nutans (L.) Nash], were allocated to either short duration rotational or continuous stocking methods and stocking rates ranging from 52 animal-unit-days (AUD) ha(-1) to 90 AUD ha(-1). Steers grazed the units from late April to late September. Precipitation was above average during the study period. Live weight gain per head was higher under continuous stocking than rotational stocking at all stocking rates. At 52 AUD ha(-1), individual gains under rotational stocking were 11% less than under continuous stocking. At 90 AUD ha(-1), individual gains under rotational stocking were decreased by 20%. Measurements of steer diets and forage standing crop suggest the reduction in weight gain was due to reduced forage intake under rotational stocking. Live weight gain per hectare increased with stocking rate and was higher with continuous stocking at all stocking rates. Net returns per hectare increased as stocking rate increased for both stocking methods but were lower for rotational stocking at all stocking rates. Variable costs per head would have to decrease by 24 to 34% under rotational stocking to equalize net returns between the 2 grazing methods. Unless the decline in gain per head can be reduced or eliminated, there is no economic incentive to implement rotational stocking under the conditions of this study.
  • Soil moisture influences low larkspur and death camas alkaloid levels

    Majak, W.; Van Ryswyk, A. L.; Hall, J. W. (Society for Range Management, 1999-03-01)
    It has long been known that alkaloid composition and concentration in plants are affected by the stage of growth and by factors at the growing site of the plant. There is, however, a lack of knowledge on the environmental factors that elicit the physiological response of alkaloid-containing plants. A 3-year survey (1992 to 1994) was conducted on the levels of zygacine and methyllycaconitine, the major neurotoxic alkaloids of death camas (Zigadenus venenosus) and low larkspur (Delphinium nuttallianum), respectively. The alkaloid levels of both species do not exhibit diurnal fluctuations, so precise sampling times during the day were not required. Both poisonous species grew in overlapping communities at 2 of the 7 sampling sites. The levels of both types of alkaloids showed similar contrasts at both sites. Lower alkaloid accumulations were associated with site conditions that reduced soil moisture stress and zygacine levels were negatively correlated with soil moisture levels at 6.5 and 14 cm sampling depths. There were no significant correlations or obvious associations between soil temperature and alkaloid levels in either death camas or low larkspur. As expected, higher alkaloid levels were associated with earlier stages of growth in both plants.
  • Seasonal cattle management in 3 to 5 year old bitterbrush stands

    Ganskopp, D.; Svejcar, T.; Taylor, F.; Farstvedt, J.; Paintner, K. (Society for Range Management, 1999-03-01)
    Because of its high palatability and sustained levels of forage quality, antelope bitterbrush (Purshia tridentata Pursh DC) is one of the most desired shrubs on western U.S. rangelands. Bitterbrush has decreased in abundance in many areas, and efforts to foster its restoration have met with limited success. Because little information is available regarding the grazing management of newly established stands of bitterbrush, this study was undertaken to: 1) determine the effects of early and late-season cattle grazing on bitterbrush, 2) determine when cattle were most likely to forage on these shrubs, and 3) relate use of shrubs to the quantity, quality, and phenology of accompanying herbaceous forages. Ungrazed (control), early-grazed, and dormant-grazed paddocks supporting 3+ year old bitterbrush (randomized complete block design, N = 3) were monitored for 3 years to accomplish this task. When grasses were green and growing, cattle grazed about 6% of the shrubs per day. When grasses and forbs were dormant, about 13% of the shrubs were grazed each day. Rates of use of shrubs were not significantly (P > 0.05) correlated with amounts of accompanying herbage available (r(2) = 0.40), levels of forage utilization (r(2) = 0.00), stocking pressure (r(2) = 0.00), crude protein (r(2) = 0.02) or neutral detergent fiber content (r(2) = 0.59) of accompanying forages, or digestibility of the forages as measured by in-vitro organic matter disappearance (IVOMD) (r(2) = 0.62). In step-wise regression analyses Julian date alone accounted for 92% of the variation in rates of use of shrubs and the addition of IVOMD accounted for 98% of the variation. This suggested that bitterbrush was grazed more heavily as the growing season advanced and forage quality of the grasses declined. Shrub height, diameter, and volume were reduced by early grazing in 1 of 3 years when turn out was delayed until grasses were entering anthesis. Cattle grazing when grasses were dormant caused reductions in height, diameter, and volume of the shrubs in all 3 years. Rates of shrub mortality were unaffected by treatment. Bitterbrush in all treatments experienced significant reductions in height, diameter, and volume from wildlife use during the winters of 1993 and 1994 but not 1995. When trials were terminated, shrubs in early-grazed paddocks exceeded (P < 0.10) their counterparts in the dormant grazed paddocks in height, diameter, and volume.
  • Plant response to defoliation in a subalpine green fescue community

    Sharrow, S. H.; Kuntz, D. E. (Society for Range Management, 1999-03-01)
    This study was prompted by concerns that expansion of elk (Cervus canadensus) ranges upward into subalpine grasslands might be damaging green fescue (Festuca viridula Vasey) meadows in Mount Rainier National Park. Objectives of the study were to examine effects of season and intensity of defoliation on phytomass productivity and canopy cover of these subalpine dry meadows and to relate these observations to the degree of elk utilization actually occurring on 3 representative meadows. Grazing in all meadows was very light. Less than one half of the plants examined showed any evidence of having been grazed. Plants which were grazed typically had less than 15% of their tops removed. Only green fescue was grazed to any significant extent by elk. Defoliation treatments (0%, 25%, 50%, and 75% of aerial phytomass removed in either early-, mid-, or late-season 1986 and again in 1987) had little effect upon plant cover the following year. Total herbage production was greater for defoliated than for undefoliated control plots in 1987, but did not vary with season of defoliation. Reproduction of green fescue and Lupinus latifolius Agardh. tended to decline as defoliation intensity increased in 1987. Neither season nor intensity of defoliation affected any of the parameters measured in 1988, a year of very low plant production. Green fescue subalpine grasslands appear to be quite tolerant of defoliation. All treatment effects were small relative to yearly differences induced by climatic variation.
  • Persistence of Idaho fescue on degraded sagebrush-steppe

    Goodwin, J. R.; Doescher, P. S.; Eddleman, L. E.; Zobel, D. B. (Society for Range Management, 1999-03-01)
    Idaho fescue (Festuca idahoensis Elmer), a palatable native perennial bunchgrass, has persisted on degraded sagebrush-steppe despite invasion by alien plants, excessive livestock grazing, and increased density of woody vegetation due to fire suppression. Survival of these populations in the presence of competitive alien plants suggested 2 possibilities: 1) that Idaho fescue produces seedlings that successfully compete for soil resources with alien invaders, and 2) that Idaho fescue seedlings tolerate stress caused by resource uptake by alien neighbors. We compared germination and growth of Idaho fescue from an undisturbed population with that of conspecific populations from disturbed (grazed and invaded) sites to determine whether disturbed-site seedlings had greater potential for resource capture. Recruitment in Idaho fescue from degraded sites did not appear to be aided by rapid seed germination or greater tolerance of moisture stress during germination. A greater proportion of seeds from the undisturbed site germinated; they germinated faster, and were no more sensitive to water stress, than were seeds from disturbed sites. For both groups, decreasing water potential from 0 to -0.5 MPa had little effect on germination percentages but declined at -1 Mpa. Germination rates slowed with decreasing water potential. Though Idaho fescue from undisturbed and disturbed sites extended roots down the soil profile with equal speed, seedlings from the undisturbed site produced 3.5 times more root length, had 2.7 times greater root length density, and 3.4 times more leaf area than disturbed-site Idaho fescue. The higher growth rate and greater root length density in Idaho fescue from the undisturbed site translates to greater exploration and exploitation of the environment. The 2 Idaho fescue groups had equivalent specific root length, specific leaf area, and root weight ratio. Idaho fescue from disturbed sites showed strong, positive geotropic growth whereas branching and diageotropic growth were greater in Idaho fescue from the undisturbed site. Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) extended roots faster than did Idaho fescue, with 17 times the root length, 6 times the root length density, and 10.8 times the leaf area of undisturbed-site Idaho fescue. Cheatgrass and Idaho fescue had equivalent specific leaf area, but specific root length of Idaho fescue was nearly twice that of the alien. Roots accounted for about 31% and 55% of cheatgrass biomass. Competitive ability did not appear to promote recruitment in Idaho fescue populations on degraded rangelands. Idaho fescue seedlings from the undisturbed-site were better competitors than disturbed-site seedlings, but interference from neighboring cheatgrass most strongly inhibited shoot growth of both Idaho fescue and cheatgrass. Idaho fescue had little effect on cheatgrass shoot growth. Selection of stress-tolerant genotypes from original populations may best explain the continued existence of Idaho fescue on grazed and invaded sites. We suggest that tolerance of moisture stress combined with vegetative longevity, are mechanisms behind Idaho fescue's persistence.
  • Opportunity costs related to feral horses: A Wyoming case study

    Bastian, C. T.; Van Tassell, L. W.; Cotton, A. C.; Smith, M. A. (Society for Range Management, 1999-03-01)
    Concern over the humane treatment and diminishing numbers of feral horses (Equus caballus) led to their protection under the Wild Free-Roaming Horse and Burro Act of 1971. The potential for rapid population growth coupled with management constraints of the 1971 Act have increased the likelihood of excessive feral horse densities in important public rangeland habitats. Excessive densities can lead to deterioration of the range resource, smaller populations of wildlife and reduced stocking rates for domestic livestock. Consequently, the potential for conflicts between wild horse and burro advocates, wildlife agencies, recreationists and livestock producers is increased. Research concerning wild horses has largely focused on biological and behavioral aspects such as habitat and dietary requirements. Limited economic research concerning wild horses is available to aid public agencies in allocating federal lands in a multiple use context. A case study was used in this analysis to estimate opportunity costs associated with foregone wildlife and domestic livestock due to wild horses on an existing allotment in Wyoming. Results indicate the marginal opportunity costs associated with horse numbers beyond the median target level specified in the allotment management plan are greater than 1,900 per horse. Forage consumption estimates indicate the range resource could face deterioration at higher wild horse population levels. These results suggest the objectives of multiple use, sustained yield and maintaining viable wild horse populations may be met if government agencies are able to remove wild horses in a timely fashion. It is not possible to say, however, that lower wild horse levels represent a more economically efficient allocation of the range resources without estimating the total economic benefits associated with wild horses.
  • Nutritional attributes of understory plants known as components of deer diets

    González-Hernández, M. P.; Silva-Pando, F. J. (Society for Range Management, 1999-03-01)
    Nutritive quality of vegetation is important when evaluating the habitat to sustain wildlife. Crude protein, fiber content and in vitro digestibility were evaluated for 17 shrubs, 7 trees, 2 ferns, 3 forbs, and 4 grasses species of Galician (NW Spain) woodlands understory. Nutritional attributes showed forbs, Frangula alnus Miller, Hedera helix L. and Linocera periclymenum L. as plants with the highest forage value. Crude protein levels of Rubus sp., Robinia pseudacacia L., Castanea sativa Miller, and grasses could meet deer nitrogen requirements but their low IVOMD and high fiber percentages make them mid-low feed value forages. Understory layer of oakwoods provides higher quality forage than conifer or eucalyptus stands. Crude protein and digestibility of plants peaked in spring-summer and the highest fiber content occurred in winter. Seasonal fluctuations in forage quality makes seasonal management and seasonal plans necessary.
  • Lone star tick abundance, fire, and bison grazing in tallgrass prairie

    Cully, J. F. (Society for Range Management, 1999-03-01)
    Lone star ticks (Amblyomma americanum L.) were collected by drag samples of 1 km transects on 12 watersheds at Konza Prairie Research Natural Area near Manhattan, Kans., during summer 1995-1996. Watersheds were treated to 2 experimental treatments: 3 burn intervals (1-year, 4-year, and 20-year) and 2 grazing treatments (grazed by bison (Bos bison L.) or ungrazed). The objectives were to determine whether fire interval, time since most recent burn, and the presence of large ungulate grazers would cause changes in lone star tick abundance in tallgrass prairie in central Kansas. Watersheds burned at 1-year intervals had fewer larvae and adults than watersheds burned at 4-year or 20-year intervals. Watersheds burned during the year of sampling had fewer ticks than watersheds burned one or more years in the past. For watersheds burned 1 or more years in the past there was no effect from time since burn. The presence of bison did not affect tick abundance. Spring burning is an effective method to reduce tick populations in tallgrass prairie during the year of the burn.
  • Intake of ashe juniper and live oak by Angora goats

    Riddle, R. R.; Taylor, C. A.; Huston, J. E.; Kothmann, M. M. (Society for Range Management, 1999-03-01)
    Angora mutton goats (Capra hircus) were fed diets of either live oak [Quercus virginiana (Small) Sarg. var. fusiformis], alfalfa hay (Medicago sativa L.), Coastal bermudagrass hay (Cynodon dactylon (L.)Pers.) or female ashe juniper (Juniperus ashei Buchholz) plus Coastal bermudagrass hay during the spring and fall of 1991 in a digestion/metabolism study. Nitrogen concentration of Coastal bermudagrass hay was nearly equal to that of alfalfa hay; nitrogen concentration of ashe juniper and live oak were much lower than those of the hays, and were higher in fall than spring. Dry matter intake and dietary nitrogen were highest for alfalfa hay, intermediate for Coastal bermudagrass hay, and lower for ashe juniper and live oak. Goats retained more nitrogen when consuming alfalfa and Coastal bermudagrass hays than juniper or live oak during fall, but differences were smaller (P > 0.10) during spring. Nitrogen balance was negative for goats consuming live oak in the spring. Nitrogen balance was positive for live oak in the fall and positive for ashe juniper for the spring and fall. Animals fed hay diets had higher levels of urine output than those fed juniper or live oak. Dry matter digestibility of juniper and live oak diets was less in fall than in spring. During fall, dry matter intakes of juniper and live oak were significantly lower than those of alfalfa and Coastal bermudagrass hays. We conclude that both ashe juniper and live oak foliage can provide nutrients for goats but only as portions of diets.
  • Factors influencing crown placement of oats (Avena sativa L.)

    Ries, R. E. (Society for Range Management, 1999-03-01)
    The depth of the grass crown nodes in the soil influences the susceptibility of the crown to environmental and management conditions which can affect grass establishment success and grain and forage yield levels. A controlled environment experiment was conducted to quantify the effect of planting depth (38 and 76 mm), temperature (25 and 10 degrees C), and light (full light [900 micromoles m(2) sec(-1)] and shaded at 55% full light [500 micromoles m(2) sec(-1)] on the elongation of oat (Avena sativa L. 'Valley') seedling internodes and the resulting final crown placement. The mesocotyl and 1st leaf internode increased in length with increased planting depth with no significant interactions. The length of the 2nd leaf internode increased more when developed under 25 degrees C temperatures than under 10 degrees C (significant temperature X depth interaction). However, the 2nd leaf internode elongated more under low light (55% full light) compared to full light (significant light X depth interaction). The 3rd leaf internode length was the same for the 38 and 76 mm planting depths when developed at 10 degrees C and under 55% full light. At 10 degrees C-full light and 25 degrees C-55% light, the deep planting depth resulted in increased 3rd leaf internode elongation, while at 25 degrees C-full light, the 3rd leaf internode was longer when developed from 38 mm planting depth (significant temperature X light X depth interaction). The ultimate elongation of these internodes resulted in the depth and structure of the final oat crown. This study points out the importance of naming and knowing each internode since the internodes do not respond in similar manner to environmental conditions. When all factors resulting in oat crown depth location and structure are considered, one expects crowns of oat seedlings developed under 10 degrees C to contain 4 nodes somewhat separated and crowns containing only 3 nodes more widely separated under temperature conditions of 25 degrees C. The most compact crown developed under reduced light conditions, from 38 mm planting depth, and a temperature of 10 degrees C. This information concerning the morphology of crown structure and location is expected to be similar for annual and perennial forage grasses with an oat type seedling morphology when seeded at similar temperatures, light intensities, and planting depths.
  • Economics of maintaining cow condition on fescue prairie in winter

    Freeze, B. S.; Willms, W. D.; Rode, L. (Society for Range Management, 1999-03-01)
    Lifetime productivity of fescue grasslands (Festuca scabrella var. campestris Rydb.) is enhanced by fall and winter grazing as opposed to summer grazing. However, forage quality is below the maintenance requirements of cattle and weathering losses will reduce available forage. Cows tend to lose weight and backfat prior to calving if their only feed source through fall and winter is native grassland. Maintaining adequate cow condition for spring calving is important to prevent long term losses associated with reduced calf birth weights, lower cow fertility and reduced cow longevity. Cow condition can be improved by having cows graze annual forage in the fall or by supplementing the cows with grain screenings. Alternatively, cows can be fed in a feedlot prior to calving to restore body condition lost in grazing native grassland in the fall and winter. Results from a 3-year experiment showed that winter wheat pasture grazed in the fall, supplemented with grain screenings was generally the least expensive alternative (ranging from 70 cow(-1) at low barley prices approaching .051 kg(-1), to 97 cow(-1) at high barley prices approaching 0.175 kg(-1)) for maintaining cow condition prior to calving. Restoring cow condition in a feedlot prior to calving was less expensive that provision of fall annual pasture when grain prices were low (barley price below 0.14 kg(-1).