ABOUT THE COLLECTION

All PharmD students at the University of Arizona College of Pharmacy must complete a research project as part of their graduation requirements. This repository collection contains the abstracts of these projects, and the full-text of projects that students have opted to make available.


QUESTIONS?

Contact Jennifer Martin, Librarian & Clinical Instructor, Pharmacy Practice and Science, for more information about the student research projects in this collection.

Recent Submissions

  • Role of Pharmacists in Delivery of Patient Care Within Legalized Medical Marijuana States With a Defined Role for the Pharmacist

    Hall-Lipsy, Elizabeth; Stankus, Bailey; Pylan, Kristen; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2020)
    Specific Aims #1: Describe and characterize role of the pharmacist and lay employee within medical marijuana dispensary. #2: Describe and differentiate between type and quality of care delivered between both groups. Methods A questionnaire was given over the phone to lay employees and registered pharmacists at specifically identified medical marijuana dispensaries. This questionnaire asked eight demographic data relating to the location and type of practice as well as 27 various yes/no questions relating to the extent of patient counseling and assessment that was done by employees with patients in the dispensary. Main Results No employee from the state of New York nor pharmacist from Arkansas was willing to participate in the study. Of the 27 patient counseling questions, significant difference in response occurred in four questions: 10, 22, 23, 27 (p=0.033, 0.008, 0.002, 0.033, respectively). All of these had more positive pharmacist responses versus lay employees. Questions 22 and 23 were regarding comorbidities and illicit drug use with zero lay employees responding positively and question 10 and 27 related to asking about personal use and formulation respectively. Conclusions Both pharmacists and lay employees provide various forms of assessment ranging from what condition is being treated to and drug-drug interactions. Pharmacists, overall, asked more assessment-type questions as well as more medication specific questions compared to lay employees. This indicates that with a pharmacist employed, there can be an expected base amount of counseling they are comfortable with performing; while with a lay employee, there is a more variability in the comprehensive counseling a patient will receive.
  • Assessment of Pharmacists’ Knowledge of and Confidence in Teaching Administration of Injectable Diabetes Medications

    Fazel, Maryam T.; Spencer, Jenene; Pears, Aaron; Nguyen, Tram; Hirakawa, Andrew; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2020)
    Uncontrolled diabetes is associated with a series of dangerous complications, which greatly affect the lives of patients. As with most chronic diseases, the management of diabetes causes a major burden for patients as per need for multiple medications and self-management, so diabetes medications use need to be closely monitored for appropriate administration/use. However, studies have shown that healthcare professionals have major knowledge gaps in injectable diabetes medications raising concerns of the quality of treatment that patients are receiving. Hence, a cross-sectional survey study was carried out with a primary outcome to assess pharmacists' confidence and knowledge with regards to administration techniques of injectable diabetes medications. The secondary outcome was to determine if confidence and knowledge were correlated. An anonymous and optional survey with confidence and knowledge questions was sent to licensed Arizona pharmacists and yielded 256 completed responses. All 256 responses were used for data analysis using a Spearman rank-order correlation coefficient. The results showed that pharmacists rated themselves somewhat confident in teaching administration techniques with an average knowledge score of 52%. Overall, there was a moderately positive correlation between confidence and knowledge level (r = 0.45). In conclusion, although pharmacists were somewhat confident in teaching the administration techniques with injectable diabetes medications, there were deficiencies in pharmacists' knowledge in areas relating to insulin pen usage, drawing insulin from vials, and injection preparations. An improved educational program that tackles the areas of weaknesses should be recommended to pharmacists to increase the knowledge level of administration techniques of injectable diabetes medications.
  • Length of Therapy with Osimertinib as First-Line Treatment vs Standard EGFR-TKIs Plus Second Line Osimertinib Treatment in Treating Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients with an EGFR Mutation

    Mathews, Kelly; Harmon, Mark; Patinella, John; Patel, Nitesh; Puente, Marcos; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2020)
    Specific Aims: Primary aim is to determine if patients initiated with osimertinib had a longer duration of treatment compared to the sum of treatment duration of standard Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) such as erlotinib, afatinib, and gefitinib plus the use of osimertinib after failure with a standard EGFR-TKI in patients with EGFR-mutated Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) at a specialty pharmacy. Our secondary aim is to determine if the frequency and severity of adverse events was lower in patients initiated on osimertinib compared to patients who used a standard EGFR-TKI, failed therapy and then used osimertinib. Methods: There were 498 patients who met inclusion criteria and were split into two groups based on their therapy, if they were taking osimertinib as their first-line therapy for NSCLC or taking it after failing a standard EGFR-TKI (EGFR-TKI + osimertinib) from Avella Specialty Pharmacy. Patients in the EGFR-TKI + osimertinib group's duration of therapy was calculated by adding the duration of therapy of their EGFR-TKI to their duration of osimertinib therapy. Adverse events were recorded by type and grading of severity using CTCAE grading scale with 1 being the least severe and 5 being death. Main Results: The 307 patients in the osimertinib as first-line therapy group had a median duration of therapy of 225 days compared to 191 patients in the EGFR-TKI + osimertinib who had a median duration of therapy of 701 days (p-value<0.0001, z-score -14.58). There were 340 adverse events reported (p=0.95) in the osimertinib first-line group with an average grading of 1.6 as compared to 210 adverse events reported in the EGFR-TKI + osimertinib group who had an average grading of 1.6 (p=1). Conclusions: Patients taking osimertinib as a first-line therapy experienced a far shorter duration of therapy than patients who started and failed a standard EGFR-TKI before starting osimertinib in patients with NSCLC in a real-world setting at a specialty pharmacy. There was no difference in adverse events reported between the two groups when considering sample size.
  • Attendance and exam scores: An investigation into the correlation between classroom attendance and exam scores in two courses at a college of pharmacy

    Urbine, Terry; Glab, Bianca K.; Asman, Jeffrey A.; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2020)
    Specific Aims: To assess correlation of academic performance with attendance of live lectures versus watching the lectures recorded. The subjects were students in a four year Doctor of Pharmacy program at a large United States public university. Methods: Over the course of a semester we monitored the progress of pharmacy students enrolled in two courses at a public university. The university had two campuses that shared lectures in real time via closed circuit television technology. The two courses were 1) Pharmacotherapeutics II (PTH) utilizing a flipped classroom approach, and 2) Professional Practice Management (PPM) employing traditional lectures. All lectures were recorded in the PPM course and most in the PTH course. Students could view the recordings at their leisure and attendance was not required. Student's exam scores and the number of lectures attended were documented. An a-priori alpha of 0.05 was set for all statistical tests. Pearson-rho analysis was utilized for examination of correlation between semester exam average and in-class attendance. A two-tailed Welch's t-test analysis was performed to compare exam scores and in-class attendance between campus cohorts. Main Results: The PPM course did not show correlation between attendance and exam scores ( r = 0.05, p = 0.627 ), while the PTH course showed a weak correlation ( r = 0.28, p = 0.003 ), but primarily due to non-recorded class sessions. Conclusions: There was no correlation between attendance and exam scores, implying recorded lectures utilized as a content delivery method are as effective as attended live lectures.
  • A systematic Review of Stock Albuterol Laws in the United States

    Phan, Hanna; Hall-Lipsy, Elizabeth; O’Shaughnessy, Scott; Lowe, Ashley; Nash, Bradley; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2020)
    BACKGROUND Asthma affects 10% of children in the United States. It is the most common chronic disease affecting school aged children 5 and 50% of them will experience an asthma attack during a one-year period 2 . Asthma causes school absenteeism and increased number of emergency room and urgent care visits compared to their peers 1,3 . All 50 states and the District of Columbia have enacted laws to allow students to carry and self-administer asthma medication while at school and school sponsored events. Children spend most of their day in a school setting or participating in school sponsored activities. Access to their asthma medication is important to prevent or relieve asthma symptoms. Students may not always have access to asthma medication due to lack of a primary care physician or asthma specialist, inability to afford the medication, or no documentation asthma diagnosis4. States have begun enacting laws that allow schools to maintain a supply of "stock inhalers" (i.e., short acting bronchodilators) that may be used to treat students' acute asthma symptoms. Common "stock inhalers" are short acting beta agonists such as an albuterol or levalbuterol inhaler or nebulizer solution. However, consistency in laws responsible for guiding initiation and maintenance of stock inhaler programs, school's access to obtain inhalers, documentation, and school and personal liability, is currently lacking. This review will categorize stock inhaler law variation and the implications for school systems and students.
  • Assessing Arizona Prescriber’s Attitudes about the Inclusion of Diagnosis or Clinical Indication on Prescriptions

    Warholak, Terri; Loera, Courtney; Olsen, Joshua; So, Andrew; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2020)
    Specific Aims: The study purpose was to assess the degree to which Arizona prescribers support the inclusion of diagnoses or clinical indication on prescriptions and if they already include it on prescriptions, what challenges they believe need to be overcome before legislation is proposed, and to analyze the different perspectives between Arizona pharmacists and prescribers about the inclusion of diagnoses or clinical indication on prescriptions. Methods: A presentation on the advantages and disadvantages of including the indication or diagnosis on prescriptions was given to primary care providers with active Arizona licenses at the Arizona Osteopathic Medical Association (AOMA) Annual Convention and the Arizona Nurse Practitioner Council (AZNPC) educational webinar. A 20-question questionnaire was distributed to attendees to collect opinions about the inclusion of indication or diagnosis. Responses were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Main Results: A total of 74 questionnaires were returned by respondents (92% Doctors of Osteopathy, 8% NPs). Out of the 74 responses, 39 questionnaires (53%) were complete. When asked if the providers would support voluntary inclusion of diagnosis/indication, 52 (71.2%) respondents agreed. Arizona prescribers do not disagree with pharmacists1 on the inclusion of a diagnosis or clinical indication on a prescription (p=0.77), but disagree with the requirement of including a diagnosis or clinical indication (n= 40, 55.5%). Conclusions: Arizona prescribers support the inclusion of a diagnosis or clinical indication, but do not support an inclusion requirement. Although most Arizona prescribers who responded are supportive of voluntary inclusion of clinical indication or diagnosis on prescription orders, many are reluctant to make this a requirement.
  • Evaluating Medication Day Supply for Improving Clinical Markers of Hemoglobin A1c; Blood Pressure; and Low-Density Lipoprotein

    Jones, William N.; Ameli, Nina; Kalikotay, Ganga; Doan, Giang; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2020)
    Specific Aims: To evaluate whether a 90-day-supply of medication compared to a < 90-day-supply improves clinical biomarkers for hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Subjects: Patients diagnosed with type II diabetes, hypertension or hyperlipidemia. Methods: A retrospective chart review using insurance claims data from 2017. Patients had prescription claims for an oral hypoglycemic agent (OHA), an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) or angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB), and/or a statin. Data were categorized based on the minimum value for control determined by the CMS Star rating system provided to the health plan. Clinical biomarker cutoffs were HbA1c (<9% or ? 9%), SBP (? 140 mm Hg and >140 mm Hg) and LDL (<100 mg/dl or ?100 mg/dl). Main Results: Of the 273 charts reviewed, 251 were included in analysis: 159 females (mean age 64.9; SD = 11.7) and 92 males (mean age = 61.5; SD = 11.3). Patients with medications from multiple classes were included in more than one analysis. With an OHA 76% had a HbA1c of <9% in the < 90-day-supply and 88% in the 90-day-supply group (p-value = 0.14). With ACE/ARB, 57% had an SBP of <140 mm Hg in < 90-day-supply and 71% for a 90-day-supply (p-value = 0.10). With statins 57% had an LDL of <100 mg/dl in the < 90-day-supply group and 66% for a 90-day-supply (p-value = 0.21). Conclusion: This study found that days' supply did not have a statistically significant impact on improving clinical biomarkers HbA1c, SBP and LDL.
  • Prevalence of Chromic Prostatitis and the Impact of Ejaculation Frequency on Prostatitis Symptoms

    Hutchings, Rance; Jeffers, Trevor; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2020)
    Specific Aims The aim of this study is to identify signs and symptoms associated with differentiating non-bacterial chronic prostatitis and symptom severity based on ejaculation frequency. Our working hypotheses are that men who ejaculate more frequently have masked symptoms or diminished symptoms of prostatitis. Methods This descriptive study will use data collected from an online questionnaire. The independent variable will be groupings of men based on ejaculation frequently. The questionnaire will consist of 21 diagnostic type questions, 8 descriptive type questions, and 2 questions gathering demographic information. A pilot study involving a couple of young males will be conducted to assess the validity of the questionnaire. Main Results Males over the age of 18 were eligible for the study, 685 participants completed the study. Our results confirm that men who ejaculate less frequently (Groups 2 & 3 - once a week or less) have significantly higher prostatitis symptoms than men who ejaculate more frequently or do not ejaculate at all, p<0.016. Conclusions Adding ejaculation frequency to a prostatitis workup may be useful in determining how much of their symptomology is being masked via frequent ejaculation. This may explain why some men with similar prostatitis severity based on physical and laboratory examination may have differing severity in symptomology.
  • Prevalence of Overbasalization in an Outpatient Family Medicine Clinic

    Ladziak, Nick; Zerr, Beth; Hodgkins, Danielle; Nguyen, Vy Ai; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2020)
    Specific Aims: Determine the prevalence of overbasalization in the outpatient primary care clinic. Methods: In this retrospective chart review, we analyzed 382 subjects in an outpatient family clinic population. We identified the instances of overbasalization from a pre-set measurable standard of overbasalization. Other data collected were analyzed to identify potential trends. Significance was determined using statistical methods including student's t-test for continuous data and chi square test for nominal data. Data were collected over a period of 1 year, from mid-2018 to mid-2019. Main Results The results show that out of 274 eligible subjects, 40 patients (14.6%) were overbasalized and 234 patients (85.4%) were appropriately treated. Based off a preset p-value of 0.05 and a confidence interval of 95%, demographic data for the subjects showed statistical differences in age, weight, BMI, basal insulin dose, and serum creatinine between the two groups. Data did not statistically differ in HbA1c, eGFR, total medical conditions, or total medications. Conclusions The prevalence of overbasalization was 14.6% of eligible patients (N=274; p<0.05) treated at Banner University Medical Center Phoenix.
  • A Retrospective Analysis of Dental Prescribing Trends at a Federally Qualified Health Center

    Slack, Marion; Hicks, Shelby; Norwood, Charles; Phillips, Krystin; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2020)
    Specific Aims: Describe dental prophylactic antibiotic prescribing practices at a federally qualified health center (FQHC) and to determine whether antibiotics are being prescribed according to American Dental Association (ADA) recommendations. Methods: A retrospective chart review for patients from January 2018-2019, who were 18+ and had been prescribed a medication for a dental procedure. Exclusion from the provided data included a non-antibiotic prescribed. Results: 178/10,082 de-identified patients were prescribed an antibiotic by a dental provider for prophylaxis. 176/178 (98.9%) of prophylactic antibiotics were prescribed within ADA guidelines. The number of antimicrobial agents used prophylactically were 3 [amoxicillin (n=136, 76.4%), clindamycin (n=38, 21.3%), and penicillin (n=2, 1.1%)]. However, penicillin is not recommended in the ADA guidelines. Conclusion: Most dental providers at El Rio prescribe antibiotics for dental prophylaxis in accordance with the ADA guidelines. This study shows that El Rio dentists are prescribing appropriately for prophylaxis and are helping to reduce antibiotic resistance in the dental field.
  • Reliability of Compendia to Update Indications and Cite References for Oncology Medications

    Axon, Rhys; Goal, Justin; Sun, Yizhou; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2020)
    Specific Aims To compare information on select oncology medications across identified compendia. Each compendium will be examined for their use of reference citations for indications (Food Drug administration [FDA] approved and off-label) and dosing. Methods The compendia were accessed by researchers for immune checkpoint inhibitors (PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors) and platinum-based agents on the same day. Researchers collaborated in extracting the data from the compendia for indications (FDA approved and off-label) and dosing as well as identifying the reference citations and ratings. Main Results Micromedex cited the most references for each indication (92.2%) out of all of the compendia; however, it relied heavily on previous iterations of medication package inserts and clinical trials (91.4%). Lexicomp cited the second most references (51.8%) while using the latest medication package insert and the most double-blind studies (30%). American Hospital Formulary Services Clinical Drug Information (AHFS CDI) and Clinical Pharmacology cited the least amount of references for each indication (32.1% and 28%, respectively) and had similar usage of double-blind studies (9.7% and 9.8%). Conclusions None of the compendia contained complete citations for indications and dosing for the PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors and platinum-based agents studied, which may lead to medication gaps for insurance-covered patients.
  • Evaluation of Clinical Mental Health Status and Diabetes Outcomes Associated with Participating in Group Diabetes Education at a Rural Community Health Center

    Hall-Lipsy, Elizabeth; Bertsch, Matt; Al-dabbagh, Maryam; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2020)
    Specific Aims: To assess the impact of diabetes health education classes on diabetes health outcomes and mental health indicators. To determine if differences exist in the sample populations based on demographic variables. Methods: A retrospective chart review of a Federally Qualified Health Center's (FQHC) medical records was conducted for patients with newly diagnosed diabetes and co-morbid depression from July 2017 to June 2018. The patients were reviewed at baseline, 3-, 6-, 9- and 12-months post diagnosis for clinical indicators including change in HbA1c, BMI, Weight, and PHQ-9. All variables were compared for those that participated in the classes versus those that did not; categorical variables were compared using Chi Square, and differences in means were compared using independent t tests. Main Results: There was no significant difference between the class and no class group in gender, mean age, languages spoken, tobacco use, rurality (measured by rural urban commuting area codes), and index of need. The races and marital status of the no class and class group did have a significant difference with a Chi-square of 0.05 and 0.041, respectively. The mean difference in change from baseline to follow-up for each patient in the HbA1c No Class (-0.38) and Class (-0.98) and PHQ-9 No Class (-0.15) and Class (-3.90) were significant for a p value of 0.013 and 0.005, respectively. There was no significant mean difference in changes weight or BMI. Conclusions: Diabetes health education classes offered at the FQHC reduced both HbA1c and PHQ-9 in patients with type 2 diabetes.
  • BAMBINO Study: Buprenorphine and Methadone Backdated Investigation of Neonatal Outcomes; In Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome

    Thompson, Susan; O’Connell, Colleen; Anderson, Seth; Fung, Mon-Yee; Guthrie, Ariane; Hoffmann, Hunter; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2020)
    Specific Aims: This study aimed to compare the impact of maternal buprenorphine and methadone use during pregnancy on the primary outcome of neonatal hospital length of stay as well as secondary neonatal outcomes, Methods: This was a retrospective, IRB-approved, observational cross-sectional study of neonates born to mothers with a documented record of medication-assisted treatment (MAT) with either methadone or buprenorphine. The primary outcome of the study was neonatal hospital length of stay in hours. Secondary outcomes included peak Finnegan score, peak morphine and clonidine dose, and total amount of morphine and clonidine administered. Using regression analyses, these primary and secondary neonatal outcomes were adjusted for maternal polysubstance and psychotropic use. Main Results: A total of 119 neonates born to mothers on MAT therapy were included in this analysis (buprenorphine n = 21, methadone n = 98). Neonates born to mothers treated with buprenorphine had a shorter hospital length of stay (mean difference - 278.6 hours, CI -459.43 to -91.30, p = 0.0037). Neonates in the buprenorphine group had significantly lower peak Finnegan scores (mean difference 2.0146, SE = 0.9465, CI 0.1383 to 3.8909, p = 0.0356). There were no significant differences in the other secondary outcomes. Conclusions: Maternal MAT with buprenorphine was associated with a shorter neonatal hospital length of stay and lower peak Finnegan score compared to methadone, with no significant difference in the other secondary outcomes. This analysis attempts to add to the understanding of neonatal outcomes born to opioid-dependent mothers on MAT.
  • Evaluation of intravenous unfractionated heparin dosing protocol for treatment of venous thromboembolism without maximum caps for bolus doses

    Rubal-Peace, Georgina; Mejia, Tiffany; Fung, Erinn; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2020)
    Specific Aims: To determine if a weight-based unfractionated heparin (UFH) dosing regimen without a maximum cap in bolus, in patients with a BMI ? 25 is associated with shorter time to reach therapeutic levels and continue to reach supratherapeutic levels. Subjects: Adults hospitalized at one of three Banner University Medical Center hospitals for greater than 24 hours receiving weight based UFH for venous thromboembolism treatment. Methods: Data extracted from patient charts admitted from October 1, 2017 - December 31, 2018 were inputted into a secure electronic data collection program, Redcap. The data collected included demographics, UFH dosing, and anti-Xa levels. Main Results: The data collected included 200 patients (56% males; mean age = 61.52; SD = 15.66), with 67 (34%) in Group 1 with a BMI ? 24.9 and 133 (66%) in Group 2 with a BMI ? 25. Overall, the mean time to achieve an initial therapeutic anti-Xa level was found to not be significantly different between groups (p = 0.24). The mean percentage of patients in each group who had sustained therapeutic levels were n = 50 (74.63%) in Group 1 and n = 100 (75.19%) in Group 2 was also not significantly different (p = 1.00), but supratherapeutic levels were reached significantly more often in the higher BMI group (group 1 n = 67; group 2 n = 133; p = 0.03). Conclusions: A weight based UFH dosing regimen without a maximum cap in bolus appears to have no difference in time to reach an initial therapeutic anti-Xa level or sustained levels, but supratherapeutic levels occurred more often in those with a BMI ? 25.
  • Evaluating Lesbian; Gay; Bisexual; and Transgender (LGBT) Patient Representation in Pharmacy School Curricula

    Hall-Lipsy, Elizabeth; Warman, Travis; Erfan, Jovan; Boland, Andria; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2020)
    Specific Aims/Purpose: To 1) quantify hours devoted to lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT)-related content, 2) identify the most frequently covered topics, and 3) determine Curricula Chairs' perception of the quality of their institutions' LGBT-related educational content in Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) programs in the United States (US). Methods: Between March 1, 2019 and May 1, 2019, Curriculum Chairs (or equivalent) from accredited schools of pharmacy throughout the US were invited to complete an anonymous 14-item web-based questionnaire to capture the quantity and quality of LGBT health curricular content at each school. Main Results: Of the 137 accredited pharmacy schools in the US enrolling students at the survey's initiation, a total of 21 completed the survey (15.3%). Amongst respondents, the mean reported time spent teaching LGBT-related content in the entire curriculum was 3.38 hours(SD=3.82). The topic most frequently taught included human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in LGBT patients (76.2%). The majority (33.3%) of institutions self-rated as "fair" on their overall coverage of LGBT content. A third of schools reported not including LGBT specific content in required didactic curriculum at all. However, the perceived quality of instruction, as assessed by the Chair of the Curriculum Committee (or equivalent), varied substantially. Conclusions: The mean reported time dedicated to LGBT-related topics in 2019 was small across US pharmacy schools. Further assessment of LGBT health content coverage in pharmacy curricula is needed, and expansion made as appropriate.
  • Evaluation of Reporting Accuracy for the Do Not Use Abbreviations List at VA CMOP

    Lee, Betty; Perez, David; Eichhorst, Nicole; El-Zein, Mariam; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2020)
    Specific Aims: The specific aims of this study are to determine whether the appropriate actions were taken, to quantify how often false positives are released for fill, and determine how much time was spent on false positives. Methods: A retrospective descriptive review of data. Data was provided from the Structured Query Language (SQL) query report that identifies Do Not Use Abbreviations (DNU) from the Joint Commission for pharmacists to review across all seven CMOPs. The report provides data from January 1st, 2019 to June 30th, 2019 containing 5,763 prescriptions for pharmacist review. Main Results: Of the 5763 prescriptions flagged for pharmacist review, 36% contained the DNU abbreviations QD and MS, 31% contained U and IU, and 32% contained trailing or leading zeros. It took on average 12.6 seconds to review each prescription for whether appropriate action was taken by the pharmacist. For each type of DNU abbreviation reviewed, the percent of false positives ranged from 38% to 93%. Conclusions: Overall there was only a small percentage of the prescriptions reviewed that had inappropriate action taken by the pharmacist. However, pharmacists are spending extra time reviewing prescriptions that may not need review. Several patterns consistently showed up for review and adjusting the query to become more specific and efficient may reduce the extra time pharmacists are spending reviewing prescriptions and increase safe throughput.
  • A Retrospective analysis of costs and trends in the treatment of HCV in the setting of specialty pharmacy

    Mathews, Kelly; Sredzinski, Eric; Allen, Tyler; Liu, Xiyi; Al-Badri, Hala; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2020)
    Specific Aims: The goal is to determine the incidence of therapy failures in Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) by viral genotype (GT), the costs of therapy, and to investigate trends or specific viral genotypes causing a higher incidence of failure in therapy. Subjects: Patients had to be over 18 and had to have started therapy for HCV at any point during 2018. Patients were excluded from analysis if they did not have a definitive follow-up SVR result reported back to the treating pharmacy. Methods: Data was collected through retrospective chart review and de-identified by pharmacy staff. Demographic data, clinical comorbidities and the length and choice of drug therapy was collected. Data was then analyzed through application of Chi-square and one-way ANOVA. Main Results: Subjects (n=604) on average were 59.2 (±11.6) years of age, with a majority (56%) being of the GT1a. Gender was significantly different between GTs (P<0.05), 1A being primarily male (60% vs 40%) and 3 being higher in female patients (56% vs 44%). GT3 had a significantly lower rate of therapy success (91%, P<0.05). The cost of HCV therapy was not significantly different between GT groups despite a significant difference in choice of therapy (P<0.001). Stratified by GT, the only significant patient factors include average age (P<0.001) and the presence of hypertension (P<0.05), GT1b being the highest in these categories. Conclusions: GT3 had the lowest incidence of therapy success. Analysis of patient factors does not clearly explain this phenomenon, and may be due solely to the viral genotype. The cost of therapy is found to be even amongst GT groups. Additional research may be done to investigate GT groups 4, 5 and 6, or focus on patients who have failed previous HCV therapy.
  • Comparing the Accuracy of Health Information Exchange (HIE) to the Traditional Process of Medication Reconciliation during Admission at the Pima County Adult Detention Center (PCADC)

    Warholak, Terri; Dumas, Nicole; Pina, Cristobal; Tran, Enna; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2020)
    Introduction: The Pima County Adult Detention Center (PCADC) admits around 100 detainees daily many of whom are on medications. PCADC is obligated to provide quality health care for detainees. Objective: To assess the accuracy of medication history before and after adding the Health Information Exchange (HIE) to the existing detainee self-report process. Methods: This was a retrospective quality improvement project that evaluated 200 detainee's medication records. Medications and doses identified via the HIE and self-report were compared using t-tests and Chi square analysis as appropriate (alpha of 0.05). Results: Of the 200 detainee records reviewed. The HIE medication data were 100% complete compared to self-report at 52% (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: The HIE provided more complete data than self-report.
  • Pharmacy Student Satisfaction with Mental Health & Wellness Resources

    Cameron, Caitlin; Lee, Jeannine; Drak, Chelsea; McFarlin, Darrien; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2020)
    Specific Aims: To identify the level of student satisfaction with access to and quality of of current mental health and wellness resources and identify the need for new or expanded resources at each campus. Subjects: Students enrolled in the University of Arizona College of Pharmacy in classes of 2021, 2022, 2023 who were present during the class in which the survey was administered. Methods: A survey was administered during a regularly scheduled class. The survey included questions regarding Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL), student satisfaction and perception of quality of resources currently provided by The University of Arizona, and questions regarding the importance of implementation or expansion of resources based on the participants' personal experiences. Data on demographic information such as age, gender year in school, self-reported work-life-school balance, commute time, dependent status, and enrolled campus was also collected. Main Results: Surveys were completed by 52 students (response rate of 46.0%) from the Phoenix campus and 89 students (response rate of 34.6%) from the Tucson campus. Responses between campuses were significantly different in regard to access to and quality of available resources for mental health and wellness. The top five resources considered "Very Important" by respondents were similar between the the two campuses. Conclusions: Student satisfaction with access to and quality of mental health and wellness resources differed between campuses,however expansion of resources and services for both student populations is desired.
  • Hot Topic Podcasts as a Learning Tool for Pharmacists

    Zerr, Beth; Culligan, Cristina; Jordan, Terry; Tran, Megan; Walneck, Diana; College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona (The University of Arizona., 2020)
    Specific Aims: To assess the perceived value and accessibility of podcasts as an educational tool for practicing pharmacists. Subjects: Participants were recruited from the pool of approximately 1300 pharmacist preceptors registered with the University of Arizona College of Pharmacy. In order to receive the retrospective pre-post podcast questionnaire, the pharmacist must listen to one or both of the podcasts. Methods: This interventional study used data obtained from a retrospective pre-post podcast questionnaire. The links for the podcasts and questionnaire were provided to participants via email. Main Results: Questionnaires were completed by 8 females (72.7%) and 3 males (27.2%). Most participants were between the ages of 23-34 (54.5%), practiced in ambulatory care (50%) and either had never listened to a podcast (27.2%) or listened once a month (27.2%). Overall, there was a statistically significant difference (p< 0.05) in participants feeling knowledgeable in the topic areas discussed in the podcast(s) after listening to the podcast(s); however, there was no statistically significant difference for podcasts being perceived as a useful educational tool, useful for staying up to date on current literature, or useful in keeping people engaged in learning. Conclusion: Listening to one or more educational podcasts did increase pharmacists perceived knowledge on the topics discussed, but did not cause a change in perceived value of podcasts as an educational tool that is engaging and useful for staying up to date on current literature. This may be due to the participants' baseline favorable view of podcasts.

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