• Interactions among interactions: The dynamical consequences of antagonism between mutualists

      Yule, Kelsey M; Johnson, Christopher A; Bronstein, Judith L; Ferrière, Régis; Univ Arizona, Dept Ecol & Evolutionary Biol; Univ Arizona, Paris Sci & Lettres Univ, Int Res Lab Interdisciplinary Global Environm Stu (ACADEMIC PRESS LTD- ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2020-05-31)
      Species often interact with multiple mutualistic partners that provide functionally different benefits and/or that interact with different life-history stages. These functionally different partners, however, may also interact directly with one another in other ways, indirectly altering net outcomes and persistence of the mutualistic system as a whole. We present a population dynamical model of a three-species system involving antagonism between species sharing a mutualist partner species with two explicit life stages. We find that, regardless of whether the antagonism is predatory or non-consumptive, persistence of the shared mutualist is possible only under a restrictive set of conditions. As the rate of antagonism between the species sharing the mutualist increases, indirect rather than direct interactions increasingly determine species' densities and sometimes result in complex, oscillatory dynamics for all species. Surprisingly, persistence of the mutualistic system is particularly dependent upon the degree to which each of the two mutualistic interactions is specialized. Our work investigates a novel mechanism by which changing ecological conditions can lead to extinction of mutualist partners and provides testable predictions regarding the interactive roles of mutualism and antagonism in net outcomes for species' densities. (C) 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    • Scientific globalism during a global crisis: research collaboration and open access publications on COVID-19

      Lee, Jenny J.; Haupt, John P.; Univ Arizona, Ctr Study Higher Educ (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-07-24)
      This study sought to understand the nature of scientific globalism during a global crisis, particularly COVID-19. Findings show that scientific globalism occurs differently when comparing COVID-19 publications with non-COVID-19 publications during as well as before the pandemic. Despite the tense geopolitical climate, countries increased their proportion of international collaboration and open-access publications during the pandemic. However, not all countries engaged more globally. Countries that have been more impacted by the crisis and those with relatively lower GDPs tended to participate more in scientific globalism than their counterparts.
    • Atomic Embeddability, Clustered Planarity, and Thickenability

      Fulek, Radoslav; Tóth, Csaba D.; Univ Arizona, Dept Comp Sci (Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, 2020-12-23)
      We study the atomic embeddability testing problem, which is a common generalization of clustered planarity (c-planarity, for short) and thickenability testing, and present a polynomial time algorithm for this problem, thereby giving the first polynomial time algorithm for c-planarity. C-planarity was introduced in 1995 by Feng, Cohen, and Eades as a variant of graph planarity, in which the vertex set of the input graph is endowed with a hierarchical clustering and we seek an embedding (crossing free drawing) of the graph in the plane that respects the clustering in a certain natural sense. Until now, it has been an open problem whether c-planarity can be tested efficiently, despite relentless efforts. The thickenability problem for simplicial complexes emerged in the topology of manifolds in the 1960s. A 2-dimensional simplicial complex is thickenable if it embeds in some orientable 3-dimensional manifold. Recently, Carmesin announced that thickenability can be tested in polynomial time. Our algorithm for atomic embeddability combines ideas from Carmesin's work with algorithmic tools previously developed for weak embeddability testing. We express our results purely in terms of graphs on surfaces, and rely on the machinery of topological graph theory. Finally we give a polynomial-time reduction from c-planarity to thickenability and show that a slight generalization of atomic embeddability to the setting in which clusters are toroidal graphs is NP-complete.
    • Optimization of Trackless Equipment Scheduling in Underground Mines Using Genetic Algorithms

      Wang, Hao; Tenorio, Victor; Li, Guoqing; Hou, Jie; Hu, Nailian; Univ Arizona, Mine Intelligence Res Grp, Dept Min & Geol Engn (SPRINGER HEIDELBERG, 2020-08-12)
      This paper presents an algorithm for optimizing the scheduling of trackless equipment in underground mines. With the shortest working interval and maximum productivity as goals, a genetic algorithm (GA) is used to solve the problem, and obtain the optimal working sequence with the most suitable equipment configuration possible. The input for the proposed method is the number of units and capacity of trackless equipment, the production process, ore amount in stopes, and the distance between stopes. The algorithm is verified using four setups of 5 stopes with 5 cycles, 5 stopes with 15 cycles, 10 stopes with 10 cycles, and 10 stopes with 30 cycles. The solution time of the algorithm is no more than 20 min, which is acceptable for practical applications. The results show that the setup of 10 stopes with 30 cycles is closer to the actual production of the mines, and the optimization model can effectively improve the operation efficiency. In this scenario, the robustness of the optimization is tested by simulating equipment failure events. Under the condition of 8% failure rate, the operation time is extended over 3.21-14.56% than expected, which represents strong robustness. The algorithm can quickly provide a feasible and effective solution for the production scheduling decision of trackless equipment in underground mines.
    • Sediment re-suspension as a potential mechanism for viral and bacterial contaminants

      Sassi, Hannah P.; van Ogtrop, Floris; Morrison, Christina M.; Zhou, Kang; Duan, Jennifer G.; Gerba, Charles P.; Univ Arizona, Water & Energy Sustainable Technol Ctr, Dept Soil Water & Environm Sci; Univ Arizona, Dept Civil Engn & Engn Math (TAYLOR & FRANCIS INC, 2020-07-24)
      Pathogenic enteric viruses and bacteria tend to occur in higher concentrations and survive longer in aquatic sediments than suspended in the water column. Re-suspension of these organisms can result in a significant degradation of overlying water quality. Additionally, the re-suspension of microbial pathogens in artificial irrigation canals could endanger the consumption of fresh and ready-to-eat produce. Irrigation water has been implicated in numerous fresh produce outbreaks over the last 30 years. This study aimed to quantify the proportions of bacterial and viral re-suspension from sediment in a recirculating flume with varying velocities. MS2 coliphage andEscherichia coliwere found to re-suspend at rates that were not significantly different, despite organism size differences. However,E. colire-suspension rates from sand and clay were significantly different. This suggests that likely sediment-associated particles were recovered with the organisms attached. Similar re-suspension rates are hypothesized to be due to the dynamics of sediment transport, rather than that of the organisms themselves. This study also indicated that the re-suspension of sediment at very low velocities (e.g., less than 10 cm/s), could impact the microbiological quality of the overlaying water. Results from this study conclude that sediment could be a viable mechanism for irrigation water contamination.
    • On endowments and indivisibility: partial ownership in the Shapley–Scarf model

      Harless, Patrick; Phan, William; Univ Arizona (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2019-07-12)
      We introduce a parameterized measure of partial ownership, the a-endowment lower bound, appropriate to probabilistic allocation. Strikingly, among all convex combinations of efficient and group strategy-proof rules, only Gale's Top Trading Cycles is sd efficient and meets a positive alpha-endowment lower bound (Theorem 2); for efficiency, partial ownership must in fact be complete. We also characterize the rules meeting each alpha-endowment lower bound (Theorem 1). For each bound, the family is a semi-lattice ordered by strength of ownership rights. It includes rules where agents' partial ownership lower bounds are met exactly, rules conferring stronger ownership rights, and the full endowments of TTC. This illustrates the trade-off between sd efficiency and flexible choice of ownership rights .
    • Climate sensitivity to decadal land cover and land use change across the conterminous United States

      Xian, George Z.; Loveland, Thomas; Munson, Seth M.; Vogelmann, James E.; Zeng, Xubin; Homer, Collin J.; Univ Arizona, Dept Hydrol & Atmospher Sci (Elsevier BV, 2020-09)
      Transitions to terrestrial ecosystems attributable to land cover and land use change (LCLUC) and climate change can affect the climate at local to regional scales. However, conclusions from most previous studies do not provide information about local climate effects, and little research has directly quantified how LCLUC intensity within different ecoregions relates to climate variation. In this study, we present an observation-based analysis of climate sensitivity to LCLUC based on decadal LCLUC and climate data in different ecoregions. Our results revealed that variations in land surface temperature and vapor pressure were most sensitive to LCLUC across the conterminous United States, while precipitation was less sensitive. Persistent warming effects were produced from LCLUC in Appalachian and some of the central U.S., High Plains, and northwest ecoregions, but cooling effects were evident in the many southeast, northeast and some Great Lakes and Intermountain West ecoregions. Most of the warming and a few cooling ecoregions were sensitive to LCLUC. Ecoregions with increasing vapor pressure were found across the Great Plains, Intermountain West, and West Coast ecoregions and several of these regions in the Great Plains and West Coast were sensitive to LCLUC. A combination of changes in temperature, precipitation, and vapor pressure was used to characterize climate sensitivity associated with LCLUC forcing, and five major persistent patterns were found in some ecoregions. These findings suggest that climate conditions, especially temperature and vapor pressure, in some ecoregions are sensitive to LCLUC and such change should be better incorporated into regional climate assessments.
    • The Atoxigenic Biocontrol Product Aflasafe SN01 Is a Valuable Tool to Mitigate Aflatoxin Contamination of Both Maize and Groundnut Cultivated in Senegal

      Senghor, L. A.; Ortega-Beltran, A.; Atehnkeng, J.; Callicott, K. A.; Cotty, P. J.; Bandyopadhyay, R.; Univ Arizona, Sch Plant Sci, USDA ARS (AMER PHYTOPATHOLOGICAL SOC, 2020-02)
      Aflatoxin contamination of groundnut and maize infected by Aspergillus section Flavi fungi is common throughout Senegal. The use of biocontrol products containing atoxigenic Aspergillus flavus strains to reduce crop aflatoxin content has been successful in several regions, but no such products are available in Senegal. The biocontrol product Aflasafe SN01 was developed for use in Senegal. The four active ingredients of Aflasafe SN01 are atoxigenic A. flavus genotypes native to Senegal and distinct from active ingredients used in other biocontrol products. Efficacy tests on groundnut and maize in farmers' fields were carried out in Senegal during the course of 5 years. Active ingredients were monitored with vegetative compatibility analyses. Significant (P < 0.05) displacement of aflatoxin producers occurred in all years, districts, and crops. In addition, crops from Aflasafe SN01-treated fields contained significantly (P < 0.05) fewer aflatoxins both at harvest and after storage. Most crops from treated fields contained aflatoxin concentrations permissible in both local and international markets. Results suggest that Aflasafe SN01 is an effective tool for aflatoxin mitigation in groundnut and maize. Large-scale use of Aflasafe SN01 should provide health, trade, and economic benefits for Senegal.
    • The modern evolution of geomorphology — Binghamton and personal perspectives, 1970–2019 and beyond

      Baker, Victor R.; Univ Arizona, Dept Hydrol & Atmospher Sci (Elsevier BV, 2020-10)
      The annual Binghamton Geomorphology Symposia (BGS) began in 1970, initiated by Professors Donald R. Coates and Marie Morisawa of the State University of New York at Binghamton. The 50 BGS meeting topics through 2019 can be organized into five general themes, as follows: (1) Applications; (2) Methods; (3) Process and Form; (4) History, Philosophy, and Theory; (5) Systems. My own geomorphological research can be divided among these themes, though it has not always been in tune with any prevailing paradigm. The experience of the BGS meetings suggests that the immediate future of geomorphology will follow current trends involving technological advances in such areas as geochronology, geospatial analysis, lidar mapping, computer simulation, and systems-based predictive modeling. For the longer term it may be that the research frontiers will lie in outer and inner space, with the former involving the discovery and analysis of the surfaces of Earth-like planets within and beyond our own solar system. The challenges of inner space may be even more profound as they are imposed against the background of rapidly accelerating advances in artificial intelligence. (C) 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    • Viral elements and their potential influence on microbial processes along the permanently stratified Cariaco Basin redoxcline

      Mara, Paraskevi; Vik, Dean; Pachiadaki, Maria G.; Suter, Elizabeth A.; Poulos, Bonnie; Taylor, Gordon T.; Sullivan, Matthew B.; Edgcomb, Virginia P.; Univ Arizona, Dept Ecol & Evolutionary Biol (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-08-14)
      Little is known about viruses in oxygen-deficient water columns (ODWCs). In surface ocean waters, viruses are known to act as gene vectors among susceptible hosts. Some of these genes may have metabolic functions and are thus termed auxiliary metabolic genes (AMGs). AMGs introduced to new hosts by viruses can enhance viral replication and/or potentially affect biogeochemical cycles by modulating key microbial pathways. Here we identify 748 viral populations that cluster into 94 genera along a vertical geochemical gradient in the Cariaco Basin, a permanently stratified and euxinic ocean basin. The viral communities in this ODWC appear to be relatively novel as 80 of these viral genera contained no reference viral sequences, likely due to the isolation and unique features of this system. We identify viral elements that encode AMGs implicated in distinctive processes, such as sulfur cycling, acetate fermentation, signal transduction, [Fe-S] formation, and N-glycosylation. These AMG-encoding viruses include two putative Mu-like viruses, and viral-like regions that may constitute degraded prophages that have been modified by transposable elements. Our results provide an insight into the ecological and biogeochemical impact of viruses oxygen-depleted and euxinic habitats.
    • Good apples in good barrels: Conscientious people are more responsive to code enforcement

      Slaughter, Jerel E.; Cooper, Dylan A.; Gilliland, Stephen W.; Univ Arizona, Eller Coll Management (Wiley, 2020-07-23)
      Meta-analytic findings suggest that strongly enforcing ethical codes of conduct reduces unethical behaviour. However, this conclusion is based on a limited number of studies, leading ethics scholars to suggest that we need to know more about the effects of codes. Furthermore, the importance of understanding how individual differences may interact with situational characteristics to influence unethical behaviour has long been recognized, but few studies have examined both personal and situational variables. Using norm focus theory as an organizing framework, the authors argue that enforcement of an ethical code of conduct and individual-level conscientiousness interacts to influence unethical behaviour. In Study 1, participants attended a laboratory session in which a code of conduct was presented and the participants had the opportunity to earn additional compensation if they acted unethically. Participants engaged in less unethical behaviour after they observed strict enforcement, but this was qualified by an enforcement x conscientiousness interaction: Strict enforcement led to lower unethical behaviour only among those who were more conscientious. In Study 2, a survey of working adults showed that the relation between code enforcement and unethical behaviour was mediated by a focus on injunctive norms, but only among those who were more conscientious. The findings therefore indicate that there are important boundary conditions on the effects of codes of conduct. Practitioner points When people are aware of a code of conduct, but have no information about how strongly the code of conduct is enforced, they view enforcement as similar to a situation wherein they witness weak enforcement. Strongly enforced codes of conduct serve to (1) increase the importance of avoiding unethical behaviour, and (2) reduce the magnitude of unethical behaviour, but only among those who are more conscientiousness. To ensure reduction of unethical behaviour, organizations must strongly enforce codesandselect employees who are highly conscientious. Alternatively, organizations may test different methods of enforcement to identify those that are effective in reducing unethical behaviour regardless of how conscientious employees are.
    • Revisiting Patent Generation in U.S. Metropolitan Areas: 1990–2015

      Mulligan, Gordon F.; Univ Arizona, Sch Geog & Dev (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-07-21)
      This paper re-examines the shifting pattern of (utility) patents across the American metropolitan landscape during the recent period 1990-2015. Patentvolumesanddensities(per capita volumes) are both analyzed at five-year intervals. All results reflect a reconstituted data base that addresses the demographic, economic, and geographic conditions prevailing among the nation'sn = 377 metropolitan areas. Standard multivariate analysis is used to distill nearly twenty input variables down to six orthogonal factors. Using the underlying factor scores, performance scores for patenting are calculated across the metropolitan areas at regular points in time. When assembled in order, these cross-sectional scores trace out the performance trends of the various metropolitan economies over the 25-year study period. Linear regression procedures, adjusted for spatial dependency, indicate that two factors-human capital and human-created amenities-have become increasingly important determinants of patenting activity across U.S. metropolitan areas during recent times. A few straightforward policy prescriptions follow from the analysis.
    • A Novel Mu-Delta Opioid Agonist Demonstrates Enhanced Efficacy With Reduced Tolerance and Dependence in Mouse Neuropathic Pain Models

      Lei, Wei; Vekariya, Rakesh H.; Ananthan, Subramaniam; Streicher, John M.; Univ Arizona, Coll Med, Dept Pharmacol (Elsevier BV, 2020-01)
      Numerous studies have demonstrated a physiological interaction between the mu opioid receptor (MOR) and delta opioid receptor (DOR) systems. A few studies have shown that dual MOR-DOR agonists could be beneficial, with reduced tolerance and addiction liability, but are nearly untested in chronic pain models, particularly neuropathic pain. In this study, we tested the MOR-DOR agonist SRI-22141 in mice in the clinically relevant models of HIV Neuropathy and Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy (CIPN). SRI-22141 was more potent than morphine in the tail flick pain test and had equal or enhanced efficacy versus morphine in both neuropathic pain models, with significantly reduced tolerance. SRI-22141 also produced no jumping behavior during naloxone-precipitated withdrawal in CIPN or nayve mice, suggesting that SRI-22141 produces little to no dependence. SRI-22141 also reduced tumor necrosis factor-alpha and cyclooxygenase-2 in CIPN in the spinal cord, suggesting an anti-inflammatory mechanism of action. The DOR-selective antagonist naltrindole strongly reduced CIPN efficacy and anti-inflammatory activity in the spinal cord, without affecting tail flick antinociception, suggesting the importance of DOR activity in these models. Overall, these results provide compelling evidence that MOR-DOR agonists could have strong efficacy with reduced side effects and an anti-inflammatory mechanism in the treatment of neuropathic pain. Perspective: This study demonstrates that a MOR-DOR dual agonist given chronically in chronic neuropathic pain models has enhanced efficacy with strongly reduced tolerance and dependence, with a further anti-inflammatory effect in the spinal cord. This suggests that MOR-DOR dual agonists could be effective treatments for neuropathic pain with reduced side effects. (C) 2020 U.S. Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Heat shock protein 90 inhibitors block the antinociceptive effects of opioids in mouse chemotherapy-induced neuropathy and cancer bone pain models

      Stine, Carrie; Coleman, Deziree L.; Flohrschutz, Austin T.; Thompson, Austen L.; Mishra, Sanket; Blagg, Brian S.; Largent-Milnes, Tally M.; Lei, Wei; Streicher, John M.; Univ Arizona, Coll Med, Dept Pharmacol (LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS, 2020-04-10)
      Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a ubiquitous signal transduction regulator, and Hsp90 inhibitors are in clinical development as cancer therapeutics. However, there have been very few studies on the impact of Hsp90 inhibitors on pain or analgesia, a serious concern for cancer patients. We previously found that Hsp90 inhibitors injected into the brain block opioid-induced antinociception in tail flick, paw incision, and HIV neuropathy pain. This study extended from that initial work to test the cancer-related clinical impact of Hsp90 inhibitors on opioid antinociception in cancer-induced bone pain in female BALB/c mice and chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy in male and female CD-1 mice. Mice were treated with Hsp90 inhibitors (17-AAG, KU-32) by the intracerebroventricular, intrathecal, or intraperitoneal routes, and after 24 hours, pain behaviors were evaluated after analgesic drug treatment. Heat shock protein 90 inhibition in the brain or systemically completely blocked morphine and oxymorphone antinociception in chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy; this effect was partly mediated by decreased ERK and JNK MAPK activation and by increased protein translation, was not altered by chronic treatment, and Hsp90 inhibition had no effect on gabapentin antinociception. We also found that the Hsp90 isoform Hsp90 alpha and the cochaperone Cdc37 were responsible for the observed changes in opioid antinociception. By contrast, Hsp90 inhibition in the spinal cord or systemically partially reduced opioid antinociception in cancer-induced bone pain. These results demonstrate that Hsp90 inhibitors block opioid antinociception in cancer-related pain, suggesting that Hsp90 inhibitors for cancer therapy could decrease opioid treatment efficacy.
    • Performance Modeling of Hyperledger Sawtooth Blockchain

      Ampel, Benjamin; Patton, Mark; Chen, Hsinchun; Univ Arizona, Management Informat Syst (IEEE, 2019-07)
      With the rapid development of blockchain platforms, it is important that different implementations are tested and analyzed for comparative purposes. One such implementation is Hyperledger Sawtooth, a new member of the Hyperledger family. Sawtooth blockchain is a permissioned implementation developed in part by Intel. While research has been done on Hyperledger Fabric, research on Sawtooth is not well documented. Using the Hyperledger Caliper benchmarking tool, we aim to test the performance of the blockchain and identify potential issues.
    • Sex-Dependent Macromolecule and Nanoparticle Delivery in Experimental Brain Injury

      Bharadwaj, Vimala N.; Copeland, Connor; Mathew, Ethan; Newbern, Jason; Anderson, Trent R.; Lifshitz, Jonathan; Kodibagkar, Vikram D.; Stabenfeldt, Sarah E.; Univ Arizona, Coll Med Phoenix, Dept Child Hlth; Univ Arizona, Coll Med Phoenix, Basic Med Sci (Mary Ann Liebert Inc, 2020-07-01)
      The development of effective therapeutics for brain disorders is challenging, in particular, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) severely limits access of the therapeutics into the brain parenchyma. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) may lead to transient BBB permeability that affords a unique opportunity for therapeutic delivery via intravenous administration ranging from macromolecules to nanoparticles (NPs) for developing precision therapeutics. In this regard, we address critical gaps in understanding the range/size of therapeutics, delivery window(s), and moreover, the potential impact of biological factors for optimal delivery parameters. Here we show, for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, that 24-h postfocal TBI female mice exhibit a heightened macromolecular tracer and NP accumulation compared with male mice, indicating sex-dependent differences in BBB permeability. Furthermore, we report for the first time the potential to deliver NP-based therapeutics within 3 days after focal injury in both female and male mice. The delineation of injury-induced BBB permeability with respect to sex and temporal profile is essential to more accurately tailor time-dependent precision and personalized nanotherapeutics. Impact statement In this study, we identified a sex-dependent temporal profile of blood/brain barrier disruption in a preclinical mouse model of traumatic brain injury (TBI) that contributes to starkly different macromolecule and nanoparticle delivery profiles post-TBI. The implications and potential impact of this work are profound and far reaching as it indicates that a demand of true personalized medicine for TBI is necessary to deliver the right therapeutic at the right time for the right patient.
    • A multiple imputation‐based sensitivity analysis approach for data subject to missing not at random

      Hsu, Chiu‐Hsieh; He, Yulei; Hu, Chengcheng; Zhou, Wei; Univ Arizona, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, Coll Publ Hlth (Wiley, 2020-07-27)
      Missingness mechanism is in theory unverifiable based only on observed data. If there is a suspicion of missing not at random, researchers often perform a sensitivity analysis to evaluate the impact of various missingness mechanisms. In general, sensitivity analysis approaches require a full specification of the relationship between missing values and missingness probabilities. Such relationship can be specified based on a selection model, a pattern-mixture model or a shared parameter model. Under the selection modeling framework, we propose a sensitivity analysis approach using a nonparametric multiple imputation strategy. The proposed approach only requires specifying the correlation coefficient between missing values and selection (response) probabilities under a selection model. The correlation coefficient is a standardized measure and can be used as a natural sensitivity analysis parameter. The sensitivity analysis involves multiple imputations of missing values, yet the sensitivity parameter is only used to select imputing/donor sets. Hence, the proposed approach might be more robust against misspecifications of the sensitivity parameter. For illustration, the proposed approach is applied to incomplete measurements of level of preoperative Hemoglobin A1c, for patients who had high-grade carotid artery stenosisa and were scheduled for surgery. A simulation study is conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed approach.
    • Forward osmosis and pressure retarded osmosis process modeling for integration with seawater reverse osmosis desalination

      Binger, Zachary M.; Achilli, Andrea; Univ Arizona, Dept Chem & Environm Engn (ELSEVIER, 2020-10)
      Osmotically driven membrane processes such as forward osmosis and pressure retarded osmosis may hold key advantages when integrated with seawater reverse osmosis to form hybrid FO-RO and RO-PRO systems. In this work, module-scale modeling of these two processes was improved by accurately representing the features of a spiral-wound membrane. The model captures important characteristics such as the cross-flow stream orientation, membrane baffling, and channel dimensions unique to spiral-wound membranes. The new module-scale model was then scaled to the system-level to compare various system designs for FO-RO and RO-PRO systems, most notably, a multi-stage recharge design was defined. Results indicate that the multi-stage recharge design leads to an increase in wastewater utilization, as high as 90%, when compared to the single-stage designs. Additionally, the multi-stage recharge configuration can increase the specific energy recovery of pressure retarded osmosis by over 75%. The multi-stage recharge design is found to be not only advantageous but may be also necessary to the integration of osmotically driven membrane processes with seawater reverse osmosis.
    • Affectionate communication and health: A meta-analysis

      Hesse, Colin; Floyd, Kory; Rains, Stephen A.; Mikkelson, Alan C.; Pauley, Perry M.; Woo, Nathan T.; Custer, Benjamin E.; Duncan, Kaylin L.; Univ Arizona, Dept Commun (ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2020-08-12)
      A robust literature documents the health benefits of affectionate communication. The present study offers a meta-analysis of this literature to estimate general effects of affectionate communication on several areas of health, including cardiovascular, stress hormonal, stress reactivity, and mental health. We also examined potential moderators, including the type of affectionate communication and sex, while predicting that the benefits of expressed affection outweigh the benefits of received affection. We found a weighted mean effect ofr= .23 for the relationship between affectionate communication and health, with differences based on type of health outcome but none for type of affection or sex. The effect of expressed affection exceeded the effect of received affection. The paper discusses the implications of these results.
    • American Indian Reservations and COVID-19: Correlates of Early Infection Rates in the Pandemic

      Rodriguez-Lonebear, Desi; Barceló, Nicolás E; Akee, Randall; Carroll, Stephanie Russo; Univ Arizona, Sch Sociol; Univ Arizona, Community Environm & Policy; Univ Arizona, Native Nat Inst, Udall Ctr Studies Publ Policy (LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS, 2020-07)
      Objective: To determine the household and community characteristics most closely associated with variation in COVID-19 incidence on American Indian reservations in the lower 48 states. Design: Multivariate analysis with population weights. Setting: Two hundred eighty-seven American Indian Reservations and tribal homelands (in Oklahoma) and, as of April 10, 2020, 861 COVID-19 cases on these reservation lands. Main Outcome Measures: The relationship between rate per 1000 individuals of publicly reported COVID-19 cases at the tribal reservation and/or community level and average household characteristics from the 2018 5-Year American Community Survey records. Results: By April 10, 2020, in regression analysis, COVID-19 cases were more likely by the proportion of homes lacking indoor plumbing (10.83,P= .001) and were less likely according to the percentage of reservation households that were English-only (-2.43,P= .03). Household overcrowding measures were not statistically significant in this analysis (-6.40,P= .326). Conclusions: Failure to account for the lack of complete indoor plumbing and access to potable water in a pandemic may be an important determinant of the increased incidence of COVID-19 cases. Access to relevant information that is communicated in the language spoken by many reservation residents may play a key role in the spread of COVID-19 in some tribal communities. Household overcrowding does not appear to be associated with COVID-19 infections in our data at the current time. Previous studies have identified household plumbing and overcrowding, and language, as potential pandemic and disease infection risk factors. These risk factors persist. Funding investments in tribal public health and household infrastructure, as delineated in treaties and other agreements, are necessary to protect American Indian communities.