• Viral elements and their potential influence on microbial processes along the permanently stratified Cariaco Basin redoxcline

      Mara, Paraskevi; Vik, Dean; Pachiadaki, Maria G.; Suter, Elizabeth A.; Poulos, Bonnie; Taylor, Gordon T.; Sullivan, Matthew B.; Edgcomb, Virginia P.; Univ Arizona, Dept Ecol & Evolutionary Biol (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-08-14)
      Little is known about viruses in oxygen-deficient water columns (ODWCs). In surface ocean waters, viruses are known to act as gene vectors among susceptible hosts. Some of these genes may have metabolic functions and are thus termed auxiliary metabolic genes (AMGs). AMGs introduced to new hosts by viruses can enhance viral replication and/or potentially affect biogeochemical cycles by modulating key microbial pathways. Here we identify 748 viral populations that cluster into 94 genera along a vertical geochemical gradient in the Cariaco Basin, a permanently stratified and euxinic ocean basin. The viral communities in this ODWC appear to be relatively novel as 80 of these viral genera contained no reference viral sequences, likely due to the isolation and unique features of this system. We identify viral elements that encode AMGs implicated in distinctive processes, such as sulfur cycling, acetate fermentation, signal transduction, [Fe-S] formation, and N-glycosylation. These AMG-encoding viruses include two putative Mu-like viruses, and viral-like regions that may constitute degraded prophages that have been modified by transposable elements. Our results provide an insight into the ecological and biogeochemical impact of viruses oxygen-depleted and euxinic habitats.
    • Levels and volatility in daily relationship quality: Roles of daily sacrifice motives

      Kayabol, Nazlı Büşra Akçabozan; Gonzalez, Jose-Michael; Gamble, Hilary; Totenhagen, Casey J.; Curran, Melissa A.; Univ Arizona (SAGE Publications, 2020-08-13)
      Conflicts are inevitable in romantic relationships. Couples sometimes choose the pro-relationship strategy of relational sacrifice to address such conflicts. Previous research established that examining sacrifice motives (i.e., approach and avoidance) is meaningful in understanding relationship quality. Using interdependence theory and 14 days of diaries with 110 heterosexual couples, we extend previous research by testing how sacrifice motives predicted both mean levels and volatility of daily relationship quality (i.e., satisfaction, commitment, intimacy, passion, trust, and love). Specifically, we examined actor and partner reports of sacrifice motives as individuals' average levels (trait; between-person differences) and daily levels of sacrifice motives on a specific day (state; within-person differences) in predicting relationship quality. When predictingmean levelsof relationship quality, individuals' own (actor) trait and state approach and avoidance motives predicted most relationship quality variables. Results were less robust for partner effects, especially for partner trait and state approach motives. When predictingvolatility(within-person variability across 14 days) in relationship quality, patterns were more robust for both approach and avoidant motives and for both actor and partner effects. For approach sacrifices, and for all six relationship quality variables, individuals' trait approach motives predicted lower volatility, whereas avoidance motives predicted higher volatility. For partner effects, individuals reported lower volatility in satisfaction, intimacy, passion, and trust when their partners were higher in approach motives, whereas they reported higher volatility in satisfaction, commitment, intimacy, and trust when their partners were higher in avoidance motives. We discuss the importance of studying dyads and testing the associations between sacrifice motives and daily relationship quality-both levels and volatility.
    • Affectionate communication and health: A meta-analysis

      Hesse, Colin; Floyd, Kory; Rains, Stephen A.; Mikkelson, Alan C.; Pauley, Perry M.; Woo, Nathan T.; Custer, Benjamin E.; Duncan, Kaylin L.; Univ Arizona, Dept Commun (ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2020-08-12)
      A robust literature documents the health benefits of affectionate communication. The present study offers a meta-analysis of this literature to estimate general effects of affectionate communication on several areas of health, including cardiovascular, stress hormonal, stress reactivity, and mental health. We also examined potential moderators, including the type of affectionate communication and sex, while predicting that the benefits of expressed affection outweigh the benefits of received affection. We found a weighted mean effect ofr= .23 for the relationship between affectionate communication and health, with differences based on type of health outcome but none for type of affection or sex. The effect of expressed affection exceeded the effect of received affection. The paper discusses the implications of these results.
    • Optimization of Trackless Equipment Scheduling in Underground Mines Using Genetic Algorithms

      Wang, Hao; Tenorio, Victor; Li, Guoqing; Hou, Jie; Hu, Nailian; Univ Arizona, Mine Intelligence Res Grp, Dept Min & Geol Engn (SPRINGER HEIDELBERG, 2020-08-12)
      This paper presents an algorithm for optimizing the scheduling of trackless equipment in underground mines. With the shortest working interval and maximum productivity as goals, a genetic algorithm (GA) is used to solve the problem, and obtain the optimal working sequence with the most suitable equipment configuration possible. The input for the proposed method is the number of units and capacity of trackless equipment, the production process, ore amount in stopes, and the distance between stopes. The algorithm is verified using four setups of 5 stopes with 5 cycles, 5 stopes with 15 cycles, 10 stopes with 10 cycles, and 10 stopes with 30 cycles. The solution time of the algorithm is no more than 20 min, which is acceptable for practical applications. The results show that the setup of 10 stopes with 30 cycles is closer to the actual production of the mines, and the optimization model can effectively improve the operation efficiency. In this scenario, the robustness of the optimization is tested by simulating equipment failure events. Under the condition of 8% failure rate, the operation time is extended over 3.21-14.56% than expected, which represents strong robustness. The algorithm can quickly provide a feasible and effective solution for the production scheduling decision of trackless equipment in underground mines.
    • Dynamics of population growth in secondary cities across southern Africa

      Zimmer, Andrew; Guido, Zack; Tuholske, Cascade; Pakalniskis, Alex; Lopus, Sara; Caylor, Kelly; Evans, Tom; Univ Arizona, Sch Geog & Dev; Univ Arizona, Arizona Inst Resilience; Univ Arizona, Sch Nat Resources & Environm (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-08-08)
      Context Two-fifths of Africans reside in urban areas with populations of less than 250,000. Projections estimate that by 2050 an additional one billion people will live in urban areas, causing an acceleration of growth for these smaller urban areas. While research and development have focused on primary cities with large populations, less is known about the dynamics of urban growth in smaller, "secondary" urban areas (SUA's). Objectives We document the spatial distribution and temporal patterns of SUA's in eight countries across Southern Africa between 1975 and 2015. We further explore the relationships between SUA's growth rates and climate, land use and geographic proximity to other urban areas. Methods Our analysis integrates spatially explicit gridded population, land use, infrastructure and climate datasets. We use descriptive statistics and spatial lag and ordinary least squares regression models to quantify SUA growth rates across three periods and explore factors that are associated with the SUA growth patterns. Results Average SUA growth rates are 2.44% between 1975 and 1990. We show that the climate, distance and land use significantly relate to urbanization trajectories. In addition, we find that the proximity of SUA to the largest cities also significantly relates to urban growth. Conclusions Our results highlight the importance of SUA's within broader African urbanization trends. SUA are undergoing rapid population changes and are important components of economic development processes and livelihoods. Quantifying patterns of SUA urbanization is important for elevating these small but critically important urban areas into the broader context of sustainable urbanization in Africa.
    • Melanocortin 3 receptor activation with [D-Trp8]-γ-MSH suppresses inflammation in apolipoprotein E deficient mice

      Kadiri, James J; Thapa, Keshav; Kaipio, Katja; Cai, Minying; Hruby, Victor J; Rinne, Petteri; Univ Arizona, Dept Chem & Biochem (ELSEVIER, 2020-08-05)
      The melanocortin MC1 and MC3 receptors elicit anti-inflammatory actions in leukocytes and activation of these receptors has been shown to alleviate arterial inflammation in experimental atherosclerosis. Thus, we aimed to investigate whether selective targeting of melanocortin MC3 receptor protects against atherosclerosis. Apolipoprotein E deficient (ApoE-/-) mice were fed high-fat diet for 12 weeks and randomly assigned to receive either vehicle (n = 11) or the selective melanocortin MC3 receptor agonist [D-Trp(8)]-gamma-melanocyte-stimulating hormone ([D-Trp8]-γ-MSH; 15 μg/day, n = 10) for the last 4 weeks. Lesion size as well as macrophage and collagen content in the aortic root plaques were determined. Furthermore, leukocyte counts in the blood and aorta and cytokine mRNA expression levels in the spleen, liver and aorta were quantified. No effect was observed in the body weight development or plasma cholesterol level between the two treatment groups. However, [D-Trp8]-γ-MSH treatment significantly reduced plasma levels of chemokine (C-C motif) ligands 2, 4 and 5. Likewise, cytokine and adhesion molecule expression levels were reduced in the spleen and liver of γ-MSH-treated mice, but not substantially in the aorta. In line with these findings, [D-Trp8]-γ-MSH treatment reduced leukocyte counts in the blood and aorta. Despite reduced inflammation, [D-Trp8]-γ-MSH did not change lesion size, macrophage content or collagen deposition of aortic root plaques. In conclusion, the findings indicate that selective activation of melanocortin MC3 receptor by [D-Trp8]-γ-MSH suppresses systemic and local inflammation and thereby also limits leukocyte accumulation in the aorta. However, the treatment was ineffective in reducing atherosclerotic plaque size.
    • Investigation of Single-Case Multiple-Baseline Randomization Tests of Trend and Variability

      Levin, Joel R.; Ferron, John M.; Gafurov, Boris S.; Univ Arizona (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-08-04)
      Previous simulation studies of randomization tests applied in single-case educational intervention research contexts have typically focused on A-to-B phase changes in means/levels. In the present simulation study, we report the results of two multiple-baseline investigations, one targeting between-phase changes in slopes/trends and the other targeting between-phase changes in variability. For each of these measures, we examine the comparative type I errors and powers of several randomization test procedures that have previously appeared in the literature. In so doing, we propose an alternative measure of variability that is more sensitive to detecting between-phase change than is the variance itself. We conclude by providing a summary table of recommended randomization test procedures for assessing different types of intervention-based effects associated with level, trend, and variability.
    • A mid-Cretaceous change from fast to slow exhumation of the western Chinese Altai mountains: A climate driven exhumation signal?

      Pullen, Alex; Banaszynski, Matthew; Kapp, Paul; Thomson, Stuart N.; Cai, Fulong; Univ Arizona, Dept Geosci (PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2020-08-01)
      The Chinese Altai Mountains in western China are bound by Cenozoic transpressional strike-slip faults, many of which show Quaternary activity. To better understand how Mesozoic-Cenozoic deformation has affected the history of exhumation and uplift of the Chinese Altai Mountains, we collected Paleozoic granitoid samples for apatite fission track and apatite U-Th-Sm/He thermochronology. Central apatite fission track ages for N = 6 samples range from 68 to 104 Ma, whereas apatite U-Th-Sm/He ages range from 56 to 272 Ma for N = 23 samples (n = 80 individual analyses) across four transects in the western Chinese Altai. Our results indicate fast cooling during the late Early Cretaceous followed by slow cooling since. Thermal modeling results suggests < 2 km exhumation has occurred over most of the Chinese Altai since the Paleocene. If significant late Cenozoic surface uplift occurred in the Altai Mountains, as has been proposed, it must have been associated with minimal erosional exhumation. We suggest that the relief of the Chinese Altai largely developed during the late Mesozoic and denudation since has been minimal because of semi-arid climate conditions.
    • Optimization and Long-Term Stability of Micro Flow Sensors for Smart VP Shunts

      Edes, Gergo; Enikov, Eniko T.; Skoch, Jesse; Anton, Rein; Univ Arizona, Dept Aerosp & Mech Engn; Univ Arizona, Dept Surg (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2020-08-01)
      This paper reports on a systematic study of the flow sensitivity and resolution of micro-flow sensors intended for use in implantable ventricular-peritoneal shunts. The flow sensors utilize ferromagnetic flaps (transducers) whose deflection is detected by ultra-sensitive MTJ sensors (20mV/V/Oe). A working range of 0-40 ml/h was demonstrated at a maximum uncertainty of 4% RMS and a resolution of 0.4 ml/h. Earlier studies on this sensor unveiled significant low-frequency noise (drift) limiting the sensitivity to 1.4 ml/hr. The present study identifies thermal noise as the main source of low-frequency drift. Using thermal compensation it was found that the drift can be reduced below 2 ml per 24-hr. Combining an array of four transducers operating in series, it has been demonstrated that a sensitivity can be increased 10.9 fold. Furthermore, the report examines the long-term structural stability of the sensors and produces a corrosion report suggesting a lifespan of 15 to 55 years.
    • The sedimentological evolution and petroleum potential of a very thick Upper Cretaceous marine mudstone succession from the southern high latitudes—a case study from the Bight Basin, Australia

      Wainman, Carmine C.; Tagliaro, Gabriel; Jones, Matthew M.; Charles, Adam J.; Hall, Tony; White, Lloyd T.; Bogus, Kara A.; Wolfgring, Erik; O'Connor, Lauren K.; McCabe, Peter J.; et al. (ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2020-08)
      During IODP Expedition 369, a 690 m thick succession of silty claystone spanning the early Turonian to the late Santonian was encountered at Site U1512 in the Bight Basin, offshore southern Australia. Stacking patterns, sedimentary facies and palynological assemblages reveal that the succession was rapidly deposited with hyperpycnal and hypopycnal flows in a marine prodelta setting, which was subject to basin restriction. The dominance of clay-rich facies and phytoclasts in the succession was likely the result of a major river system delivering a high sediment load into the Bight Basin when a warm, wet climate prevailed. A combination of high sedimentation rates (19-272 m/Myr) and accelerated subsidence prevented the delta from rapidly prograding into more distal regions of the basin. The complete Turonian to Santonian mudstone succession yields low total organic carbon (similar to 1 wt%) and Type IV kerogens. However, palynofacies assemblages become progressively marine in character and total organic carbon values vary between 1 and 1.5 wt% with depth. This may indicate that the base of the hole at Site U1512 was close to potential organic-rich black shales associated with Ocean Anoxic Event 2. Low amplitude and irregular reflections on seismic data and disparities between biostratigraphic zonations suggest the upper 350 m of the Turonian to Santonian succession may represent a mass movement that happened during the Pleistocene. This study reveals that Site U1512 material likely represents a near-stratigraphically complete marine mudstone succession from high paleolatitudes, as well as the only depositional record that was fully cored from the Bight Basin.
    • Improving transportation impact analyses for subsidized affordable housing developments: A data collection and analysis of motorized vehicle and person trip generation

      Currans, Kristina M.; Abou-Zeid, Gabriella; Clifton, Kelly J.; Howell, Amanda; Schneider, Robert; Univ Arizona, Coll Architecture Planning & Landscape Architectu (ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2020-08)
      Transportation impact analyses begin with a trip generation estimation process-estimating motorized vehicle and person trip counts coming and going from the proposed site. Data commonly used is often insensitive to urban contexts (such as employment densities) and socioeconomic conditions. This insensitivity results in sometimes exaggerated estimates, an increase associated transportation impact fees, and a need for additional mitigation of impacts which may further hinder land development. In this study, we collected and analyzed person and motorized vehicle count data from 26 affordable housing developments in Los Angeles and San Francisco. Counts were regressed upon site and built environment characteristics known to influence site-level travel behavior (e.g., parking supply, employment density), and regressions were validated using externally collected data. The findings indicate the average square footage of dwelling units, parking ratios, and nearby retail employment densities to be important predictors. The findings also indicate that increasing the parking supply from one space to two for each dwelling unit will result in a significant predicted increase of approximately 0.26 and 0.18 motorized vehicle trips per dwelling unit for AM and PM peak periods, respectively. These findings reiterate the need for trip generation methodologies sensitive to the built environment and socio-demographics.
    • Implications for the origin and evolution of Martian Recurring Slope Lineae at Hale crater from CaSSIS observations

      Munaretto, G.; Pajola, M.; Cremonese, G.; Re, C.; Lucchetti, A.; Simioni, E.; McEwen, A.S.; Pommerol, A.; Becerra, P.; Conway, S.J.; et al. (PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2020-08)
      Recurring Slope Lineae (RSL) are narrow, dark features that typically source from rocky outcrops, incrementally lengthen down Martian steep slopes in warm seasons, fade in cold seasons and recur annually. In this study we report the first observations of RSL at Hale crater, Mars, during late southern summer by the Color and Surface Science Imaging System (CaSSIS) on board ESA's ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO). For the first time, we analyze images of RSL acquired during morning solar local times and compare them with High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) observations taken in the afternoon. We find that RSL activity is correlated with the presence of steep slopes. Our thermal analysis establishes that local temperatures are high enough to allow either the melting of brines or deliquescence of salts during the observation period, but the slope and aspect distributions of RSL activity predicted by these processes are not consistent with our observations. We do not find any significant relative albedo difference between morning and afternoon RSL. Differences above 11% would have been detected by our methodology, if present. This instead suggests that RSL at Hale crater are not caused by seeping water that reaches the surface, but are best explained as dry flows of granular material.
    • Administering the HPV Vaccine to People Living with HIV: Providers' Perspectives

      Koskan, Alexis; Brennhofer, Stephanie A; Helitzer, Deborah; Univ Arizona, Mel & Enid Zuckerman Coll Publ Hlth (SPRINGER, 2020-08)
      HIV-positive patients suffer disproportionate burden of anal cancer, a disease which is primarily caused by persistent infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) and is potentially preventable with the completion of the HPV vaccine series. Past research qualitatively explored HIV-positive patients' perspectives about the HPV vaccine. However, little is known about their healthcare practitioners' vaccine recommendation behaviors, the strongest influence on vaccine uptake. This study reports on in-depth interviews conducted with 25 healthcare practitioners who provide care for HIV-positive patients. Qualitative themes that emerged from the study included clinicians' HPV vaccination behaviors, HIV patient's willingness to get the HPV vaccine, the role of HIV-positive patients' immune functioning in terms of timing of HPV vaccine administration, and vaccinating HIV-positive patients over age 26. The majority of providers offered the vaccine at their healthcare facility. Participants varied in their opinions related to the importance of patients' CD4 count in terms of timing of HPV vaccine administration; some believed that patients' immune functioning should first be stabilized to receive the most benefit from the vaccine series. They also differed in the perceived benefit of offering the vaccine to patients over age 26. In light of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's recent approval to extend HPV vaccination to adults up to age 45 years, more HIV-positive adults may benefit by receiving this vaccine series. Future efforts should ensure that providers regularly promote the HPV vaccine to their adult HIV-positive patients. Vaccinating HIV-positive patients may help reduce the burden of HPV-related cancers, particularly anal cancer.
    • Achieving Participation-Focused Intervention Through Shared Decision Making: Proposal of an Age- and Disorder-Generic Framework

      Baylor, Carolyn; Darling-White, Meghan; Univ Arizona, Dept Speech Language & Hearing Sci (AMER SPEECH-LANGUAGE-HEARING ASSOC, 2020-08)
      Introduction: The World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health calls on speech-language pathologists (SLPs) to provide care that impacts all aspects of an individual's experience with a communication disorder, including their participation in valued life situations. However, SLPs often report feeling unprepared to implement and document interventions that target life participation. The purpose of this article is to propose a framework to guide participation-focused intervention practices. This age- and disorder-generic framework is designed to be applicable with clients across the variety of settings in which SLPs work. Method: In this clinical focus article, we draw on past research and clinical experience to propose a restructuring of World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health components such that participation is the primary focus and outcomes indicator for intervention. In this framework, a specific communicative participation situation is identified and assessed quantitatively, and a corresponding participation-focused goal is established through shared decision making. Following that, assessments are conducted and goals are established in the areas of communication skills, physical and social environments, and personal perspectives. Results: The proposed framework provides a concrete organizational structure as well as assessment, goal-writing, and intervention examples to assist SLPs in translating theoretical biopsychosocial frameworks into clinical practices. Conclusions: SLPs can and do provide holistic communication services to clients to help them achieve their life participation goals. This article provides an example as to how we can document the need for, as well as the value and impact of our important work, meeting the diverse life participation needs of clients.
    • A multiple imputation‐based sensitivity analysis approach for data subject to missing not at random

      Hsu, Chiu‐Hsieh; He, Yulei; Hu, Chengcheng; Zhou, Wei; Univ Arizona, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, Coll Publ Hlth (Wiley, 2020-07-27)
      Missingness mechanism is in theory unverifiable based only on observed data. If there is a suspicion of missing not at random, researchers often perform a sensitivity analysis to evaluate the impact of various missingness mechanisms. In general, sensitivity analysis approaches require a full specification of the relationship between missing values and missingness probabilities. Such relationship can be specified based on a selection model, a pattern-mixture model or a shared parameter model. Under the selection modeling framework, we propose a sensitivity analysis approach using a nonparametric multiple imputation strategy. The proposed approach only requires specifying the correlation coefficient between missing values and selection (response) probabilities under a selection model. The correlation coefficient is a standardized measure and can be used as a natural sensitivity analysis parameter. The sensitivity analysis involves multiple imputations of missing values, yet the sensitivity parameter is only used to select imputing/donor sets. Hence, the proposed approach might be more robust against misspecifications of the sensitivity parameter. For illustration, the proposed approach is applied to incomplete measurements of level of preoperative Hemoglobin A1c, for patients who had high-grade carotid artery stenosisa and were scheduled for surgery. A simulation study is conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed approach.
    • Scientific globalism during a global crisis: research collaboration and open access publications on COVID-19

      Lee, Jenny J.; Haupt, John P.; Univ Arizona, Ctr Study Higher Educ (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-07-24)
      This study sought to understand the nature of scientific globalism during a global crisis, particularly COVID-19. Findings show that scientific globalism occurs differently when comparing COVID-19 publications with non-COVID-19 publications during as well as before the pandemic. Despite the tense geopolitical climate, countries increased their proportion of international collaboration and open-access publications during the pandemic. However, not all countries engaged more globally. Countries that have been more impacted by the crisis and those with relatively lower GDPs tended to participate more in scientific globalism than their counterparts.
    • Sediment re-suspension as a potential mechanism for viral and bacterial contaminants

      Sassi, Hannah P.; van Ogtrop, Floris; Morrison, Christina M.; Zhou, Kang; Duan, Jennifer G.; Gerba, Charles P.; Univ Arizona, Water & Energy Sustainable Technol Ctr, Dept Soil Water & Environm Sci; Univ Arizona, Dept Civil Engn & Engn Math (TAYLOR & FRANCIS INC, 2020-07-24)
      Pathogenic enteric viruses and bacteria tend to occur in higher concentrations and survive longer in aquatic sediments than suspended in the water column. Re-suspension of these organisms can result in a significant degradation of overlying water quality. Additionally, the re-suspension of microbial pathogens in artificial irrigation canals could endanger the consumption of fresh and ready-to-eat produce. Irrigation water has been implicated in numerous fresh produce outbreaks over the last 30 years. This study aimed to quantify the proportions of bacterial and viral re-suspension from sediment in a recirculating flume with varying velocities. MS2 coliphage andEscherichia coliwere found to re-suspend at rates that were not significantly different, despite organism size differences. However,E. colire-suspension rates from sand and clay were significantly different. This suggests that likely sediment-associated particles were recovered with the organisms attached. Similar re-suspension rates are hypothesized to be due to the dynamics of sediment transport, rather than that of the organisms themselves. This study also indicated that the re-suspension of sediment at very low velocities (e.g., less than 10 cm/s), could impact the microbiological quality of the overlaying water. Results from this study conclude that sediment could be a viable mechanism for irrigation water contamination.
    • Diagnosing collisionless energy transfer using field–particle correlations: Alfvén-ion cyclotron turbulence

      Klein, Kristopher G.; Howes, Gregory G.; TenBarge, Jason M.; Valentini, Francesco; Univ Arizona, Lunar & Planetary Lab (Cambridge University Press (CUP), 2020-07-24)
      We apply field-particle correlations - a technique that tracks the time-averaged velocity-space structure of the energy density transfer rate between electromagnetic fields and plasma particles - to data drawn from a hybrid Vlasov-Maxwell simulation of Alfven-ion cyclotron turbulence. Energy transfer in this system is expected to include both Landau and cyclotron wave-particle resonances, unlike previous systems to which the field-particle correlation technique has been applied. In this simulation, the energy transfer rate mediated by the parallel electric field E-parallel to comprises approximately 60% of the total rate, with the remainder mediated by the perpendicular electric field E-perpendicular to. The parallel electric field resonantly couples to protons, with the canonical bipolar velocity-space signature of Landau damping identified at many points throughout the simulation. The energy transfer mediated by E-perpendicular to preferentially couples to particles with v(tp) less than or similar to v(perpendicular to) less than or similar to 3 v(tp), where vtp is the proton thermal speed, in agreement with the expected formation of a cyclotron diffusion plateau. Our results demonstrate clearly that the field-particle correlation technique can distinguish distinct channels of energy transfer using single-point measurements, even at points in which multiple channels act simultaneously, and can be used to determine quantitatively the rates of particle energization in each channel.
    • Good apples in good barrels: Conscientious people are more responsive to code enforcement

      Slaughter, Jerel E.; Cooper, Dylan A.; Gilliland, Stephen W.; Univ Arizona, Eller Coll Management (Wiley, 2020-07-23)
      Meta-analytic findings suggest that strongly enforcing ethical codes of conduct reduces unethical behaviour. However, this conclusion is based on a limited number of studies, leading ethics scholars to suggest that we need to know more about the effects of codes. Furthermore, the importance of understanding how individual differences may interact with situational characteristics to influence unethical behaviour has long been recognized, but few studies have examined both personal and situational variables. Using norm focus theory as an organizing framework, the authors argue that enforcement of an ethical code of conduct and individual-level conscientiousness interacts to influence unethical behaviour. In Study 1, participants attended a laboratory session in which a code of conduct was presented and the participants had the opportunity to earn additional compensation if they acted unethically. Participants engaged in less unethical behaviour after they observed strict enforcement, but this was qualified by an enforcement x conscientiousness interaction: Strict enforcement led to lower unethical behaviour only among those who were more conscientious. In Study 2, a survey of working adults showed that the relation between code enforcement and unethical behaviour was mediated by a focus on injunctive norms, but only among those who were more conscientious. The findings therefore indicate that there are important boundary conditions on the effects of codes of conduct. Practitioner points When people are aware of a code of conduct, but have no information about how strongly the code of conduct is enforced, they view enforcement as similar to a situation wherein they witness weak enforcement. Strongly enforced codes of conduct serve to (1) increase the importance of avoiding unethical behaviour, and (2) reduce the magnitude of unethical behaviour, but only among those who are more conscientiousness. To ensure reduction of unethical behaviour, organizations must strongly enforce codesandselect employees who are highly conscientious. Alternatively, organizations may test different methods of enforcement to identify those that are effective in reducing unethical behaviour regardless of how conscientious employees are.
    • Women “doing” the judiciary: rethinking the justice argument for descriptive representation

      Dovi, Suzanne; Luna, Francy; Univ Arizona, Sch Govt & Publ Policy (ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2020-07-21)
      In this paper, we explore how political scientists can improve the study of gender diversity in the judiciary by drawing on the normative and theoretical literature on representation generally, and on descriptive representation specifically. In particular, we examine an undertheorized argument within the literature on descriptive representation, namely, the justice argument. Using Nancy Fraser's discussion of two justice frameworks, specifically, the recognition and redistribution frameworks, we argue that political scientists should evaluate the justice effects of a diverse judiciary usingmultipleconceptions of justice. In this way, we use normative theory to generate new research directions in the study of judicial diversity.