• The 2016 Mw 7.8 Pedernales, Ecuador, Earthquake: Rapid Response Deployment

      Meltzer, Anne; Beck, Susan; Ruiz, Mario; Hoskins, Mariah; Soto‐Cordero, Lillian; Stachnik, Joshua C.; Lynner, Colton; Porritt, Rob; Portner, Daniel; Alvarado, Alexandra; et al. (SEISMOLOGICAL SOC AMER, 2019-05)
      The April 2016 Pedernales earthquake ruptured a 100 km by 40 km segment of the subduction zone along the coast of Ecuador in an M-w 7.8 megathrust event east of the intersection of the Carnegie ridge with the trench. This portion of the subduction zone has ruptured on decadal time scales in similar size and larger earthquakes, and exhibits a range of slip behaviors, variations in segmentation, and degree of plate coupling along strike. Immediately after the earthquake, an international rapid response effort coordinated by the Instituto Geofisico at the Escuela Politecnica Nacional in Quito deployed 55 seismometers and 10 ocean-bottom seismometers above the rupture zone and adjacent areas to record aftershocks. In this article, we describe the details of the U.S. portion of the rapid response and present an earthquake cata-log from May 2016 to May 2017 produced using data recorded by these stations. Aftershocks focus in distinct clusters within and around the rupture area and match spatial patterns observed in long-term seismicity. For the first two and a half months, aftershocks exhibit a relatively sharp cutoff to the north of the mainshock rupture. In early July, an earthquake swarm occurred similar to 100 km to the northeast of the mainshock in the epicentral region of an M-w 7.8 earthquake in 1958. In December, an increase in seismicity occurred similar to 70 km to the northeast of the mainshock in the epicentral region of the 1906 earthquake. Data from the Pedernales earthquake and aftershock sequence recorded by permanent seismic and geodetic networks in Ecuador and the dense aftershock deployment provide an opportunity to examine the persistence of asperities for large to great earthquakes over multiple seismic cycles, the role of asperities and slow slip in subduction-zone megathrust rupture, and the relationship between locked and creeping parts of the subduction interface.
    • 20th century changes in carbon isotopes and water-use efficiency: tree-ring-based evaluation of the CLM4.5 and LPX-Bern models

      Keller, Kathrin M.; Lienert, Sebastian; Bozbiyik, Anil; Stocker, Thomas F.; Churakova (Sidorova), Olga V.; Frank, David C.; Klesse, Stefan; Koven, Charles D.; Leuenberger, Markus; Riley, William J.; et al. (COPERNICUS GESELLSCHAFT MBH, 2017-05-24)
      Measurements of the stable carbon isotope ratio (delta C-13) on annual tree rings offer new opportunities to evaluate mechanisms of variations in photosynthesis and stomatal conductance under changing CO2 and climate conditions, especially in conjunction with process-based biogeochemical model simulations. The isotopic discrimination is indicative of the ratio between the CO2 partial pressure in the intercellular cavities and the atmosphere (c(i)/c(a)) and of the ratio of assimilation to stomatal conductance, termed intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE). We performed isotope-enabled simulations over the industrial period with the land biosphere module (CLM4.5) of the Community Earth System Model and the Land Surface Processes and Exchanges (LPX-Bern) dynamic global vegetation model. Results for C3 tree species show good agreement with a global compilation of delta C-13 measurements on leaves, though modeled C-13 discrimination by C3 trees is smaller in arid regions than measured. A compilation of 76 tree-ring records, mainly from Europe, boreal Asia, and western North America, suggests on average small 20th century changes in isotopic discrimination and in c(i)/c(a) and an increase in iWUE of about 27% since 1900. LPX-Bern results match these century-scale reconstructions, supporting the idea that the physiology of stomata has evolved to optimize trade-offs between carbon gain by assimilation and water loss by transpiration. In contrast, CLM4.5 simulates an increase in discrimination and in turn a change in iWUE that is almost twice as large as that revealed by the tree-ring data. Factorial simulations show that these changes are mainly in response to rising atmospheric CO2. The results suggest that the downregulation of c(i)/c(a) and of photosynthesis by nitrogen limitation is possibly too strong in the standard setup of CLM4.5 or that there may be problems associated with the implementation of conductance, assimilation, and related adjustment processes on long-term environmental changes.
    • The 25 parsec local white dwarf population

      Holberg, J. B.; Oswalt, T. D.; Sion, E. M.; McCook, G. P.; Univ Arizona, Lunar & Planetary Lab (OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2016-11-01)
      We have extended our detailed survey of the local white dwarf population from 20 to 25 pc, effectively doubling the sample volume, which now includes 232 stars. In the process, newstars within 20 pc have been added, a more uniform set of distance estimates as well as improved spectral and binary classifications are available. The present 25 pc sample is estimated to be about 68 per cent complete (the corresponding 20 pc sample is now 86 per cent complete). The space density of white dwarfs is unchanged at 4.8 +/- 0.5 x 10(-3) pc(-3). This new study includes a white dwarf mass distribution and luminosity function based on the 232 stars in the 25 pc sample. We find a significant excess of single stars over systems containing one or more companions (74 per cent versus 26 per cent). This suggests mechanisms that result in the loss of companions during binary system evolution. In addition, this updated sample exhibits a pronounced deficiency of nearby 'Sirius-like' systems. 11 such systems were found within the 20 pc volume versus only one additional system found in the volume between 20 and 25 pc. An estimate of white dwarf birth rates during the last similar to 8 Gyr is derived from individual remnant cooling ages. A discussion of likely ways new members of the local sample may be found is provided.
    • A 2500 deg2 CMB Lensing Map from Combined South Pole Telescope and Planck Data

      Omori, Y.; Chown, R.; Simard, G.; Story, K. T.; Aylor, K.; Baxter, E. J.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; et al. (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2017-11-07)
      We present a cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing map produced from a linear combination of South Pole Telescope (SPT) and Planck temperature data. The 150 GHz temperature data from the 2500 deg(2) SPT-SZ survey is combined with the Planck 143 GHz data in harmonic space to obtain a temperature map that has a broader l coverage and less noise than either individual map. Using a quadratic estimator technique on this combined temperature map, we produce a map of the gravitational lensing potential projected along the line of sight. We measure the auto-spectrum of the lensing potential C-L(phi phi), and compare it to the theoretical prediction for a.CDM cosmology consistent with the Planck 2015 data set, finding a best-fit amplitude of 0.95(-0.06)(+0.06) (stat.)(-0.01)(+0.01)+ (sys.). The null hypothesis of no lensing is rejected at a significance of 24 sigma. One important use of such a lensing potential map is in cross-correlations with other dark matter tracers. We demonstrate this cross-correlation in practice by calculating the cross-spectrum, C-L(phi) G, between the SPT+ Planck lensing map and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) galaxies. We fit C-L(phi G) to a power law of the form p(L) = a(L/L-0)(-b) with a, L-0, and b fixed, and find eta(phi G) = C-L(phi G)/p(L) = 0.94(-0.04)(+0.04), which is marginally lower, but in good agreement with eta(phi G) = 1.00-(+0.02)(0.01), the best-fit amplitude for the cross-correlation of Planck-2015 CMB lensing and WISE galaxies over similar to 67% of the sky. The lensing potential map presented here will be used for cross-correlation studies with the Dark Energy Survey, whose footprint nearly completely covers the SPT 2500 deg(2) field.
    • 29P/Schwassmann–Wachmann 1, A Centaur in the Gateway to the Jupiter-family Comets

      Sarid, G.; Volk, K.; Steckloff, J. K.; Harris, W.; Womack, M.; Woodney, L. M.; Univ Arizona, Lunar & Planetary Lab (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2019-09-23)
      Jupiter-family comets (JFCs) are the evolutionary products of trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) that evolve through the giant planet region as Centaurs and into the inner solar system. Through numerical orbital evolution calculations following a large number of TNO test particles that enter the Centaur population, we have identified a short-lived dynamical Gateway, a temporary low-eccentricity region exterior to Jupiter through which the majority of JFCs pass. We apply an observationally based size distribution function to the known Centaur population and obtain an estimated Gateway region population. We then apply an empirical fading law to the rate of incoming JFCs implied by the the Gateway region residence times. Our derived estimates are consistent with observed population numbers for the JFC and Gateway populations. Currently, the most notable occupant of the Gateway region is 29P/Schwassmann–Wachmann 1 (SW1), a highly active, regularly outbursting Centaur. SW1's present-day, very-low-eccentricity orbit was established after a 1975 Jupiter conjunction and will persist until a 2038 Jupiter conjunction doubles its eccentricity and pushes its semimajor axis out to its current aphelion. Subsequent evolution will likely drive SW1's orbit out of the Gateway region, perhaps becoming one of the largest JFCs in recorded history. The JFC Gateway region coincides with a heliocentric distance range where the activity of observed cometary bodies increases significantly. SW1's activity may be typical of the early evolutionary processing experienced by most JFCs. Thus, the Gateway region, and its most notable occupant SW1, are critical to both the dynamical and physical transition between Centaurs and JFCs.
    • 2D broadband beamsteering with large-scale MEMS optical phased array

      Wang, Youmin; Zhou, Guangya; Zhang, Xiaosheng; Kwon, Kyungmok; Blanche, Pierre-A.; Triesault, Nicholas; Yu, Kyoung-sik; Wu, Ming C.; Univ Arizona, Coll Opt Sci (OPTICAL SOC AMER, 2019-04-29)
      Optical-phased arrays (OPAs) enable complex beamforming, random-access beam pointing, and simultaneous scan and tracking of multiple targets by controlling the phases of two-dimensional (2D) coherent emitters. So far, no OPA can achieve all desirable features including large 2D arrays, high optical efficiency, wideband operation in wavelengths, fast response time, and large steering angles at the same time. Here, we report on a large-scale 2D OPA with novel microelectro-mechanical-system (MEMS)-actuated phase shifters. Wavelength-independent phase shifts are realized by physically moving a grating element in the lateral direction. The OPA has 160 x 160 independent phase shifters across an aperture of 3.1 mm x 3.2 mm. It has a measured beam divergence of 0.042 degrees x 0.031 degrees, a field of view (FOV) of 6.6 degrees x 4.4 degrees, and a response time of 5.7 mu s. It is capable of providing about 25,600 rapidly steerable spots within its FOV. The grating phase shifters are optimized for the near-infrared telecom wavelength bands from 1200 to 1700 nm with 85% optical efficiency. (C) 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement
    • 2D semiconductor nonlinear plasmonic modulators

      Klein, Matthew; Badada, Bekele H; Binder, Rolf; Alfrey, Adam; McKie, Max; Koehler, Michael R; Mandrus, David G; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; LeRoy, Brian J; et al. (NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2019-07-22)
      A plasmonic modulator is a device that controls the amplitude or phase of propagating plasmons. In a pure plasmonic modulator, the presence or absence of a plasmonic pump wave controls the amplitude of a plasmonic probe wave through a channel. This control has to be mediated by an interaction between disparate plasmonic waves, typically requiring the integration of a nonlinear material. In this work, we demonstrate a 2D semiconductor nonlinear plasmonic modulator based on a WSe2 monolayer integrated on top of a lithographically defined metallic waveguide. We utilize the strong interaction between the surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) and excitons in the WSe2 to give a 73 % change in transmission through the device. We demonstrate control of the propagating SPPs using both optical and SPP pumps, realizing a 2D semiconductor nonlinear plasmonic modulator, with an ultrafast response time of 290 fs.
    • 3-D Printed Parts for a Multilayer Phased Array Antenna System

      Yu, Xiaoju; Liang, Min; Shemelya, Corey; Roberson, David A.; Wicker, Ryan; MacDonald, Eric; Xin, Hao; Univ Arizona; Univ Arizona, Dept Elect & Comp Engn (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2018-10-01)
      In this work, a three-dimensional printable multilayer phased array system was designed to demonstrate the applicability of additive manufacturing for radio frequency (RF) systems. A hybrid process incorporating a thermal wire-mesh embedding method for conductors and thermoplastic material extrusion for dielectrics is employed. The designed phased array, operating at 3.5 GHz, consists of three functional layers: a 1-to-4 Wilkinson divider at the bottom, embedded voltage-controlled phase shifters at the center, and patch antennas on the top. Standalone parts of the proposed multilayer phased array were printed to verify the integrated dielectric-conductor printing process as well as the incorporation of active semiconductor devices at room temperature.
    • 3.6 AND 4.5 μm SPITZER PHASE CURVES OF THE HIGHLY IRRADIATED HOT JUPITERS WASP-19b AND HAT-P-7b

      Wong, Ian; Knutson, Heather A.; Kataria, Tiffany; Lewis, Nikole K.; Burrows, Adam; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Schwartz, Joel C.; Shporer, Avi; Agol, Eric; Cowan, Nicolas B.; et al. (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2016-05-27)
      We analyze full-orbit phase curve observations of the transiting hot Jupiters WASP-19b and HAT-P-7b at 3.6 and 4.5 mu m, obtained using the Spitzer Space Telescope. For WASP-19b, we measure secondary eclipse depths of 0.485% +/- 0.024% and 0.584% +/- 0.029% at 3.6 and 4.5 mu m, which are consistent with a single blackbody with effective temperature 2372 +/- 60 K. The measured 3.6 and 4.5 mu m secondary eclipse depths for HAT-P-7b are 0.156% +/- 0.009% and 0.190% +/- 0.006%, which are well described by a single blackbody with effective temperature 2667 +/- 57 K. Comparing the phase curves to the predictions of one-dimensional and three-dimensional atmospheric models, we find that WASP-19b's dayside emission is consistent with a model atmosphere with no dayside thermal inversion and moderately efficient day-night circulation. We also detect an eastward-shifted hotspot, which suggests the presence of a superrotating equatorial jet. In contrast, HAT-P-7b's dayside emission suggests a dayside thermal inversion and relatively inefficient day-night circulation; no hotspot shift is detected. For both planets, these same models do not agree with the measured nightside emission. The discrepancies in the model-data comparisons for WASP-19b might be explained by high-altitude silicate clouds on the nightside and/or high atmospheric metallicity, while the very low 3.6 mu m nightside planetary brightness for HAT-P-7b may be indicative of an enhanced global C/O ratio. We compute Bond albedos of 0.38 +/- 0.06 and 0 (<0.08 at 1 sigma) for WASP-19b and HAT-P-7b, respectively. In the context of other planets with thermal phase curve measurements, we show that WASP-19b and HAT-P-7b fit the general trend of decreasing day-night heat recirculation with increasing irradiation.
    • 3.8 μm Imaging of 400–600 K Brown Dwarfs and Orbital Constraints for WISEP J045853.90+643452.6AB

      Leggett, S. K.; Dupuy, Trent J.; Morley, Caroline V.; Marley, Mark S.; Best, William M. J.; Liu, Michael C.; Apai, D.; Casewell, S. L.; Geballe, T. R.; Gizis, John E.; et al. (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2019-09-09)
      Half of the energy emitted by late-T- and Y-type brown dwarfs emerges at 3.5 <= lambda mu m <= 5.5. We present new L' (3.43 <= lambda mu m <= 4.11) photometry obtained at the Gemini North telescope for nine late-T and Y dwarfs, and synthesize L' from spectra for an additional two dwarfs. The targets include two binary systems that were imaged at a resolution of 0.'' 25. One of these, WISEP J045853.90+643452.6AB, shows significant motion, and we present an astrometric analysis of the binary using Hubble Space Telescope, Keck Adaptive Optics, and Gemini images. We compare lambda similar to 4 mu m observations to models, and find that the model fluxes are too low for brown dwarfs cooler than similar to 700 K. The discrepancy increases with decreasing temperature, and is a factor of similar to 2 at T-eff = 500 K and similar to 4 at T-eff = 400 K. Warming the upper layers of a model atmosphere generates a spectrum closer to what is observed. The thermal structure of cool brown dwarf atmospheres above the radiative-convective boundary may not be adequately modeled using pure radiative equilibrium; instead heat may be introduced by thermochemical instabilities (previously suggested for the L- to T-type transition) or by breaking gravity waves (previously suggested for the solar system giant planets). One-dimensional models may not capture these atmospheres, which likely have both horizontal and vertical pressure/temperature variations.
    • 3C 294 revisited: Deep Large Binocular Telescope AO NIR images and optical spectroscopy

      Heidt, J.; Quirrenbach, A.; Hoyer, N.; Thompson, D.; Pramskiy, A.; Agapito, G.; Esposito, S.; Gredel, R.; Miller, D.; Pinna, E.; et al. (EDP SCIENCES S A, 2019-07-31)
      Context. High redshift radio galaxies are among the most massive galaxies at their redshift, are often found at the center of protoclusters of galaxies, and are expected to evolve into the present day massive central cluster galaxies. Thus they are a useful tool to explore structure formation in the young Universe. Aims. 3C 294 is a powerful FR II type radio galaxy at z = 1.786. Past studies have identified a clumpy structure, possibly indicative of a merging system, as well as tentative evidence that 3C 294 hosts a dual active galactic nucleus (AGN). Due to its proximity to a bright star, it has been subject to various adaptive optics imaging studies. Methods. In order to distinguish between the various scenarios for 3C 294, we performed deep, high-resolution adaptive optics near-infrared imaging and optical spectroscopy of 3C 294 with the Large Binocular Telescope. Results. We resolve the 3C 294 system into three distinct components separated by a few tenths of an arcsecond on our images. One is compact, the other two are extended, and all appear to be non-stellar. The nature of each component is unclear. The two extended components could be a galaxy with an internal absorption feature, a galaxy merger, or two galaxies at different redshifts. We can now uniquely associate the radio source of 3C 294 with one of the extended components. Based on our spectroscopy, we determined a redshift of z = 1.784 +/- 0.001, which is similar to the one previously cited. In addition we found a previously unreported emission line at lambda 6749.4 angstrom in our spectra. It is not clear that it originates from 3C 294. It could be the Ne [IV] doublet lambda 2424/2426 angstrom at z = 1.783, or belong to the compact component at a redshift of z similar to 4.56. We thus cannot unambiguously determine whether 3C 294 hosts a dual AGN or a projected pair of AGNs.
    • 3D augmented reality with integral imaging display

      Shen, Xin; Hua, Hong; Javidi, Bahram; Univ Arizona, Coll Opt Sci (SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING, 2016-06-01)
      In this paper, a three-dimensional (3D) integral imaging display for augmented reality is presented. By implementing the pseudoscopic-to-orthoscopic conversion method, elemental image arrays with different capturing parameters can be transferred into the identical format for 3D display. With the proposed merging algorithm, a new set of elemental images for augmented reality display is generated. The newly generated elemental images contain both the virtual objects and real world scene with desired depth information and transparency parameters. The experimental results indicate the feasibility of the proposed 3D augmented reality with integral imaging.
    • 3D hydrodynamic simulations of carbon burning in massive stars

      Cristini, A.; Meakin, C.; Hirschi, R.; Arnett, D.; Georgy, C.; Viallet, M.; Walkington, I.; Univ Arizona, Dept Astron (OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2017-10)
      We present the first detailed 3D hydrodynamic implicit large eddy simulations of turbulent convection of carbon burning in massive stars. Simulations begin with radial profiles mapped from a carbon-burning shell within a 15M circle dot 1D stellar evolution model. We consider models with 128(3), 256(3), 512(3), and 1024(3) zones. The turbulent flow properties of these carbon-burning simulations are very similar to the oxygen-burning case. We performed a mean field analysis of the kinetic energy budgets within the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes framework. For the upper convective boundary region, we find that the numerical dissipation is insensitive to resolution for linear mesh resolutions above 512 grid points. For the stiffer, more stratified lower boundary, our highest resolution model still shows signs of decreasing sub-grid dissipation suggesting it is not yet numerically converged. We find that the widths of the upper and lower boundaries are roughly 30 per cent and 10 per cent of the local pressure scaleheights, respectively. The shape of the boundaries is significantly different from those used in stellar evolution models. As in past oxygen-shell-burning simulations, we observe entrainment at both boundaries in our carbon-shell-burning simulations. In the large Peclet number regime found in the advanced phases, the entrainment rate is roughly inversely proportional to the bulk Richardson number, Ri(B) (alpha Ri(B)(-alpha) a, 0.5 less than or similar to alpha less than or similar to 1.0). We thus suggest the use of Ri(B) as a means to take into account the results of 3D hydrodynamics simulations in new 1D prescriptions of convective boundary mixing.
    • 3D Imaging Millimeter Wave Circular Synthetic Aperture Radar

      Zhang, Renyuan; Cao, Siyang; Univ Arizona, Dept Elect & Comp Engn (MDPI AG, 2017-06-17)
      In this paper, a new millimeter wave 3D imaging radar is proposed. The user just needs to move the radar along a circular track, and high resolution 3D imaging can be generated. The proposed radar uses the movement of itself to synthesize a large aperture in both the azimuth and elevation directions. It can utilize inverse Radon transform to resolve 3D imaging. To improve the sensing result, the compressed sensing approach is further investigated. The simulation and experimental result further illustrated the design. Because a single transceiver circuit is needed, a light, affordable and high resolution 3D mmWave imaging radar is illustrated in the paper.
    • 3D imaging of gems and minerals by multiphoton microscopy

      Cromey, Benjamin; Knox, Ryan J.; Kieu, Khanh; Univ Arizona, Coll Opt Sci (OPTICAL SOC AMER, 2019-02-01)
      Many optical approaches have been used to examine the composition and structure of gemstones, both recently and throughout history. The nonlinear optical behavior of different gemstones has not been investigated, and the higher order terms to the refractive index represent an unused tool for qualifying and examining a stone. We have used a multiphoton microscope to examine the nonlinear optical properties of 36 different gemstones and demonstrate that it is a useful tool for imaging them three-dimensionally up to the millimeter scale below the sample surface. The polarization dependence of second harmonic generation signals was used to examine the crystal orientations inside the minerals. (C) 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement
    • 3D Simulations and MLT. I. Renzini’s Critique

      Arnett, W. David; Meakin, Casey; Hirschi, Raphael; Cristini, Andrea; Georgy, Cyril; Campbell, Simon; Scott, Laura J. A.; Kaiser, Etienne A.; Viallet, Maxime; Mocák, Miroslav; et al. (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2019-08-27)
      Renzini wrote an influential critique of "overshooting" in mixing-length theory (MLT), as used in stellar evolution codes, and concluded that three-dimensional fluid dynamical simulations were needed. Such simulations are now well tested. Implicit large eddy simulations connect large-scale stellar flow to a turbulent cascade at the grid scale, and allow the simulation of turbulent boundary layers, with essentially no assumptions regarding flow except the number of computational cells. Buoyant driving balances turbulent dissipation for weak stratification, as in MLT, but with the dissipation length replacing the mixing length. The turbulent kinetic energy in our computational domain shows steady pulses after 30 turnovers, with no discernible diminution; these are caused by the necessary lag in turbulent dissipation behind acceleration. Interactions between coherent turbulent structures give multi-modal behavior, which drives intermittency and fluctuations. These cause mixing, which may justify use of the instability criterion of Schwarzschild rather than the Ledoux. Chaotic shear flow of turning material at convective boundaries causes instabilities that generate waves and sculpt the composition gradients and boundary layer structures. The flow is not anelastic; wave generation is necessary at boundaries. A self-consistent approach to boundary layers can remove the need for ad hoc procedures of "convective overshooting" and "semi-convection." In Paper II, we quantify the adequacy of our numerical resolution in a novel way, determine the length scale of dissipation—the "mixing length"—without astronomical calibration, quantify agreement with the four-fifths law of Kolmogorov for weak stratification, and deal with strong stratification.
    • 3D visualization of optical ray aberration and its broadcasting to smartphones by ray aberration generator

      Hellman, Brandon; Bosset, Erica; Ender, Luke; Jafari, Naveed; McCann, Phillip; Nguyen, Chris; Summitt, Chris; Wang, Sunglin; Takashima, Yuzuru; Univ Arizona (SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING, 2017-11-27)
      The ray formalism is critical to understanding light propagation, yet current pedagogy relies on inadequate 2D representations. We present a system in which real light rays are visualized through an optical system by using a collimated laser bundle of light and a fog chamber. Implementation for remote and immersive access is enabled by leveraging a commercially available 3D viewer and gesture-based remote controlling of the tool via bi-directional communication over the Internet.
    • THE 3D-HST SURVEY: HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE WFC3/G141 GRISM SPECTRA, REDSHIFTS, AND EMISSION LINE MEASUREMENTS FOR ∼100,000 GALAXIES

      Momcheva, Ivelina G.; Brammer, Gabriel B.; van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Whitaker, Katherine E.; Nelson, Erica J.; Fumagalli, Mattia; Maseda, Michael V.; Leja, Joel; Franx, Marijn; et al. (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2016-08-11)
      We present reduced data and data products from the 3D-HST survey, a 248-orbit HST Treasury program. The survey obtained WFC3 G141 grism spectroscopy in four of the five CANDELS fields: AEGIS, COSMOS, GOODS-S, and UDS, along with WFC3 H-140 imaging, parallel ACS G800L spectroscopy, and parallel I-814 imaging. In a previous paper, we presented photometric catalogs in these four fields and in GOODS-N, the fifth CANDELS field. Here we describe and present the WFC3 G141 spectroscopic data, again augmented with data from GO-1600 in GOODS-N (PI: B. Weiner). We developed software to automatically and optimally extract interlaced two-dimensional (2D) and one-dimensional (1D) spectra for all objects in the Skelton et al. (2014) photometric catalogs. The 2D spectra and the multi-band photometry were fit simultaneously to determine redshifts and emission line strengths, taking the morphology of the galaxies explicitly into account. The resulting catalog has redshifts and line strengths (where available) for 22,548 unique objects down to JH(IR) <= 24 (79,609 unique objects down to JH(IR) <= 26). Of these, 5459 galaxies are at z > 1.5 and 9621 are at 0.7 < z < 1.5, where Ha falls in the G141 wavelength coverage. The typical redshift error for JH(IR) <= 24 galaxies is sigma(z) approximate to 0.003 x (1 + z), i.e., one native WFC3 pixel. The 3 sigma limit for emission line fluxes of point sources is 2.1 x 10(-17) erg s(-1) cm(-2). All 2D and 1D spectra, as well as redshifts, line fluxes, and other derived parameters, are publicly available.(18)
    • 3He-rich Solar Energetic Particle Observations at the Parker Solar Probe and near Earth

      Wiedenbeck, M. E.; Bučík, R.; Mason, G. M.; Ho, G. C.; Leske, R. A.; Cohen, C. M. S.; Christian, E. R.; Cummings, A. C.; Davis, A. J.; Desai, M. I.; et al. (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2020-02-03)
      The Integrated Science Investigation of the Sun (IS circle dot IS) instrument suite on the Parker Solar Probe (PSP) spacecraft is making in situ observations of energetic ions and electrons closer to the Sun than any previous mission. Using data collected during its first two orbits, which reached perihelion distances of 0.17 au, we have searched for He-3-rich solar energetic particle (SEP) events under very quiet solar minimum conditions. On 2019-110-111 (April 20-21), He-3-rich SEPs were observed at energies near 1MeV nucleon(-1) in association with energetic protons, heavy ions, and electrons. This activity was also detected by the Ultra-Low-Energy Isotope Spectrometer and the Electron, Proton, and Alpha Monitor instruments on the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) spacecraft located near Earth, 0.99 au from the Sun. At that time, PSP and ACE were both magnetically connected to locations near the west limb of the Sun. Remote sensing measurements showed the presence of type III radio bursts and also helical jets from this region of the Sun. This combination of observations is commonly associated with He-3-rich SEP acceleration on the Sun. AR 12738, which was located at Carrington coordinates from which numerous X-ray flares were observed over a period of more than 6 months, was identified as the source of the He-3-rich events. This region was also the source of several other SEP events detected at PSP or ACE. Aside from the period in 2019 April, IS circle dot IS did not observe any other He-3-rich SEPs during orbits 1 and 2.
    • The 4-Celled Tetrabaena socialis Nuclear Genome Reveals the Essential Components for Genetic Control of Cell Number at the Origin of Multicellularity in the Volvocine Lineage

      Featherston, Jonathan; Arakaki, Yoko; Hanschen, Erik R; Ferris, Patrick J; Michod, Richard E; Olson, Bradley J S C; Nozaki, Hisayoshi; Durand, Pierre M; Univ Arizona, Dept Ecol & Evolutionary Biol (OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2018-04)
      Multicellularity is the premier example of a major evolutionary transition in individuality and was a foundational event in the evolution of macroscopic biodiversity. The volvocine chlorophyte lineage is well suited for studying this process. Extant members span unicellular, simple colonial, and obligate multicellular taxa with germ-soma differentiation. Here, we report the nuclear genome sequence of one of the most morphologically simple organisms in this lineage-the 4-celled colonial Tetrabaena socialis and compare this to the three other complete volvocine nuclear genomes. Using conservative estimates of gene family expansions a minimal set of expanded gene families was identified that associate with the origin of multicellularity. These families are rich in genes related to developmental processes. A subset of these families is lineage specific, which suggests that at a genomic level the evolution of multicellularity also includes lineagespecific molecular developments. Multiple points of evidence associate modifications to the ubiquitin proteasomal pathway (UPP) with the beginning of coloniality. Genes undergoing positive or accelerating selection in the multicellular volvocines were found to be enriched in components of the UPP and gene families gained at the origin of multicellularity include components of the UPP. A defining feature of colonial/multicellular life cycles is the genetic control of cell number. The genomic data presented here, which includes diversification of cell cycle genes and modifications to the UPP, align the genetic components with the evolution of this trait.