• P -wave π π scattering and the ρ resonance from lattice QCD

      Alexandrou, Constantia; Leskovec, Luka; Meinel, Stefan; Negele, John; Paul, Srijit; Petschlies, Marcus; Pochinsky, Andrew; Rendon, Gumaro; Syritsyn, Sergey; Univ Arizona, Dept Phys (AMER PHYSICAL SOC, 2017-08-31)
      We calculate the parameters describing elastic I = 1, P-wave pp scattering using lattice QCD with 2 + 1 flavors of clover fermions. Our calculation is performed with a pion mass of m(pi) approximate to 320 MeV and a lattice size of L approximate to 3.6 fm. We construct the two-point correlation matrices with both quark-antiquark and two-hadron interpolating fields using a combination of smeared forward, sequential and stochastic propagators. The spectra in all relevant irreducible representations for total momenta vertical bar(P) over right arrow vertical bar <= root 32 pi/L are extracted with two alternative methods: a variational analysis as well as multiexponential matrix fits. We perform an analysis using Luscher's formalism for the energies below the inelastic thresholds, and investigate several phase shift models, including possible nonresonant contributions. We find that our data are well described by the minimal Breit-Wigner form, with no statistically significant nonresonant component. In determining the rho resonance mass and coupling we compare two different approaches: fitting the individually extracted phase shifts versus fitting the t-matrix model directly to the energy spectrum. We find that both methods give consistent results, and at a pion mass of am(pi) = 0.18295(36)(stat) obtain g(rho pi pi) = 5.69(13)(stat)(16)(sys), am(rho) = 0.4609(16)(stat)(14)(sys), and am(rho)/am(N) = 0.7476(38)(stat)(23)(sys), where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is the systematic uncertainty due to the choice of fit ranges.
    • P2RX7 Deletion in T Cells Promotes Autoimmune Arthritis by Unleashing the Tfh Cell Response

      Felix, Krysta M.; Teng, Fei; Bates, Nicholas A.; Ma, Heqing; Jaimez, Ivan A.; Sleiman, Kiah C.; Tran, Nhan L.; Wu, Hsin-Jung Joyce; Univ Arizona, Dept Immunobiol; Univ Arizona, Coll Med, Arizona Arthrit Ctr (FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2019-03-19)
      Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease that affects similar to 1% of the world's population. B cells and autoantibodies play an important role in the pathogenesis of RA. The P2RX7 receptor is an ATP-gated cation channel and its activation results in the release of pro-inflammatory molecules. Thus, antagonists of P2RX7 have been considered to have potential as novel anti-inflammatory therapies. Although originally identified for its role in innate immunity, P2RX7 has recently been found to negatively control Peyer's patches (PP) T follicular helper cells (Tfh), which specialize in helping B cells, under homeostatic conditions. We have previously demonstrated that PP Tfh cells are required for the augmentation of autoimmune arthritis mediated by gut commensal segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB). Thus, we hypothesized that P2RX7 is required to control autoimmune disease by keeping the Tfh cell response in check. To test our hypothesis, we analyzed the impact of P2RX7 deficiency in vivo using both the original K/BxN autoimmune arthritis model and T cell transfers in the K/BxN system. We also examined the impact of P2RX7 ablation on autoimmune development in the presence of the gut microbiota SFB. Our data illustrate that contrary to exerting an anti-inflammatory effect, P2RX7 deficiency actually enhances autoimmune arthritis. Interestingly, SFB colonization can negate the difference in disease severity between WT and P2RX7-deficient mice. We further demonstrated that P2RX7 ablation in the absence of SFB caused reduced apoptotic Tfh cells and enhanced the Tfh response, leading to an increase in autoantibody production. It has been shown that activation of TIGIT, a well-known T cell exhaustion marker, up-regulates anti-apoptotic molecules and promotes T cell survival. We demonstrated that the reduced apoptotic phenotype of P2rx7(-/-) Tfh cells is associated with their increased expression of TIGIT. This suggested that while P2RX7 was regulating the Tfh population by promoting cell death, TIGIT may have been opposing P2RX7 by inhibiting cell death. Together, these results demonstrated that systemic administration of general P2RX7 antagonists may have detrimental effects in autoimmune therapies, especially in Tfh cell-dependent autoimmune diseases, and cell-specific targeting of P2RX7 should be considered in order to achieve efficacy for P2RX7-related therapy.
    • P2X7 receptor antagonism prevents IL-1β release from salivary epithelial cells and reduces inflammation in a mouse model of autoimmune exocrinopathy

      Khalafalla, Mahmoud G.; Woods, Lucas T.; Camden, Jean M.; Khan, Aslam A.; Limesand, Kirsten H.; Petris, Michael J.; Erb, Laurie; Weisman, Gary A.; Univ Arizona, Dept Nutr Sci (AMER SOC BIOCHEMISTRY MOLECULAR BIOLOGY INC, 2017-10-06)
      Salivary gland inflammation is a hallmark of Sjogren's syndrome (SS), a common autoimmune disease characterized by lymphocytic infiltration of the salivary gland and loss of saliva secretion, predominantly in women. The P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) is an ATP-gated nonselective cation channel that induces inflammatory responses in cells and tissues, including salivary gland epithelium. In immune cells, P2X7R activation induces the production of proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-1 beta and IL-18, by inducing the oligomerization of the multiprotein complex NLRP3-type inflammasome. Here, our results show that in primary mouse submandibular gland (SMG) epithelial cells, P2X7R activation also induces the assembly of the NLRP3 inflammasome and the maturation and release of IL-1 beta, a response that is absent in SMG cells isolated from mice deficient in P2X7Rs (P2X7R(-/-)). P2X7R-mediated IL-1 beta release in SMG epithelial cells is dependent on transmembrane Na+ and/or K+ flux and the activation of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), a protein required for the activation and stabilization of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Also, using the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers N-acetyl cysteine and Mito-TEMPO, we determined that mitochondrial reactive oxygen species are required for P2X7R-mediated IL-1 beta release. Lastly, in vivo administration of the P2X7R antagonist A438079 in the CD28(-/-), IFN gamma(-/-), NOD.H-2(h4) mouse model of salivary gland exocrinopathy ameliorated salivary gland inflammation and enhanced carbachol-induced saliva secretion. These findings demonstrate that P2X7R antagonism in vivo represents a promising therapeutic strategy to limit salivary gland inflammation and improve secretory function.
    • P53 suppresses expression of the 14-3-3gamma oncogene

      Radhakrishnan, Vijayababu; Putnam, Charles; Qi, Wenqing; Martinez, Jesse; Arizona Cancer Center, Department of Cellular & Molecular Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85724, USA; Department of Pediatrics, Steele Research Center, 1501 N Campbell Ave, Tucson, Arizona 85724, USA; Department of Surgery, 1501 N Campbell ave, Tucson, Arizona 85724, USA; Department of Medicine, 1515 N. Campbell Ave., Tucson, Arizona 85724, USA (BioMed Central, 2011)
      BACKGROUND:14-3-3 proteins are a family of highly conserved proteins that are involved in a wide range of cellular processes. Recent evidence indicates that some of these proteins have oncogenic activity and that they may promote tumorigenesis. We previously showed that one of the 14-3-3 family members, 14-3-3gamma, is over expressed in human lung cancers and that it can induce transformation of rodent cells in vitro.METHODS:qRTPCR and Western blot analysis were performed to examine 14-3-3gamma expression in non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC). Gene copy number was analyzed by qPCR. P53 mutations were detected by direct sequencing and also by western blot. CHIP and yeast one hybrid assays were used to detect p53 binding to 14-3-3gamma promoter.RESULTS:Quantitative rtPCR results showed that the expression level of 14-3-3gamma was elevated in the majority of NSCLC that we examined which was also consistent with protein expression. Further analysis of the expression pattern of 14-3-3gamma in lung tumors showed a correlation with p53 mutations suggesting that p53 might suppress 14-3-3 gamma expression. Analysis of the gamma promoter sequence revealed the presence of a p53 consensus binding motif and in vitro assays demonstrated that wild-type p53 bound to this motif when activated by ionizing radiation. Deletion of the p53 binding motif eliminated p53's ability to suppress 14-3-3gamma expression.CONCLUSION:Increased expression of 14-3-3gamma in lung cancer coincides with loss of functional p53. Hence, we propose that 14-3-3gamma's oncogenic activities cooperate with loss of p53 to promote lung tumorigenesis.
    • P5CS expression level and proline accumulation in the sensitive and tolerant wheat cultivars under control and drought stress conditions in the presence/absence of silicon and salicylic acid

      Maghsoudi, Kobra; Emam, Yahya; Niazi, Ali; Pessarakli, Mohammad; Arvin, Mohammad Javad; Univ Arizona, Dept Plant Sci (TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2018-08-09)
      The effects of silicon (Si) and salicylic acid (SA) applications on proline content and expression of (1)-pyrrolin-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS) were examined under different drought levels and different drought exposure times. Two wheat cultivars, a drought tolerant and a drought sensitive were used. The experiment was a factorial based on completely randomized design with three replicates. Expression analysis by the quantitative real time PCR showed that the tolerant cultivar had significantly higher P5CS expressions compared to the sensitive one under drought stress. In sampling time points, the maximum level of mRNA was observed at 48h after stress was applied. At 48h after stress induction, the expression of P5CS was almost 3.1 fold higher in the tolerant cultivar compared to the sensitive one. In both cultivars, gene expression decreased from 48 to 72h. The stressed plants treated with Si+SA showed a higher expression. Proline content started to increase by Si and SA treatments and the maximum proline content was obtained at simultaneous application of Si+SA. Drought stress significantly reduced chlorophyll content, relative water content and leaf water potential of both cultivars, while increased electrolyte leakage (EL) of the leaves. In contrast, foliar-applied Si and SA significantly increased these parameters and reduced EL, and the effect of simultaneous application of Si and SA was greater. The results suggest that the P5CS is a stress inducible gene. This gene has the potential to be used for improvement of drought stress tolerance in wheat. Network analysis highlighted positive interaction of osmotic stress, drought and cold stress on P5CS1 and the regulatory role of MYB2, ERF-1, and EIN3 transcription factors. In conclusion, alleviation of drought stress by application of Si and SA was associated partially with enhanced expression of P5CS gene and following proline accumulation.
    • p97 Negatively Regulates NRF2 by Extracting Ubiquitylated NRF2 from the KEAP1-CUL3 E3 Complex

      Tao, Shasha; Liu, Pengfei; Luo, Gang; Rojo de la Vega, Montserrat; Chen, Heping; Wu, Tongde; Tillotson, Joseph; Chapman, Eli; Zhang, Donna D.; Univ Arizona, Coll Pharm, Dept Pharmacol & Toxicol (AMER SOC MICROBIOLOGY, 2017-04-15)
      Activation of the stress-responsive transcription factor NRF2 is the major line of defense to combat oxidative or electrophilic insults. Under basal conditions, NRF2 is continuously ubiquitylated by the KEAP1-CUL3-RBX1 E3 ubiquitin ligase complex and is targeted to the proteasome for degradation ( the canonical mechanism). However, the path from the CUL3 complex to ultimate proteasomal degradation was previously unknown. p97 is a ubiquitin-targeted ATP-dependent segregase that extracts ubiquitylated client proteins from membranes, protein complexes, or chromatin and has an essential role in autophagy and the ubiquitin proteasome system ( UPS). In this study, we show that p97 negatively regulates NRF2 through the canonical pathway by extracting ubiquitylated NRF2 from the KEAP1-CUL3 E3 complex, with the aid of the heterodimeric cofactor UFD1/NPL4 and the UBA-UBX containing protein UBXN7, for efficient proteasomal degradation. Given the role of NRF2 in chemoresistance and the surging interest in p97 inhibitors to treat cancers, our results indicate that dual p97/NRF2 inhibitors may offer a more potent and long-term avenue of p97-targeted treatment.
    • PA program characteristics and diversity in the profession

      Coplan, Bettie; Bautista, Tara G.; Dehn, Richard W.; Univ Arizona, Coll Med, Dept Biomed Informat (LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS, 2018-03)
      Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to identify PA program characteristics that may be associated with higher or lower percentages of underrepresented minority students in PA programs. Methods: Data from the Physician Assistant Education Association (PAEA) 2002-2003 and 2012-2013 annual surveys were analyzed. Bivariate correlation coefficients and multiple regression modeling were used to identify relationships between program characteristics and percentages of black and Hispanic students. Results: The percentage of white matriculants in PA programs increased from 76.5% in 2002-2003 to 81.8% in 2012-2013; the percentage of black students decreased from 6.2% to 4.4%. Multiple linear regression revealed a modest negative relationship between master's degree and percentage of underrepresented minority students and a modest positive relationship between percentages of underrepresented minority employees and underrepresented minority students. Conclusions: Further research is needed to identify strategies to increase underrepresented minority participation in healthcare professions programs.
    • Pacific sea level rise patterns and global surface temperature variability

      Peyser, Cheryl E.; Yin, Jianjun; Landerer, Felix W.; Cole, Julia E.; Univ Arizona, Dept Geosci; Department of Geosciences; University of Arizona; Tucson Arizona USA; Department of Geosciences; University of Arizona; Tucson Arizona USA; Jet Propulsion Laboratory/NASA; California Institute of Technology; Pasadena California USA; Department of Geosciences; University of Arizona; Tucson Arizona USA (AMER GEOPHYSICAL UNION, 2016-08-28)
      During 1998-2012, climate change and sea level rise (SLR) exhibit two notable features: a slowdown of global surface warming (hiatus) and a rapid SLR in the tropical western Pacific. To quantify their relationship, we analyze the long-term control simulations of 38 climate models. We find a significant and robust correlation between the east-west contrast of dynamic sea level (DSL) in the Pacific and global mean surface temperature (GST) variability on both interannual and decadal time scales. Based on linear regression of the multimodel ensemble mean, the anomalously fast SLR in the western tropical Pacific observed during 1998-2012 indicates suppression of a potential global surface warming of 0.16 degrees 0.06 degrees C. In contrast, the Pacific contributed 0.29 degrees 0.10 degrees C to the significant interannual GST increase in 1997/1998. The Pacific DSL anomalies observed in 2015 suggest that the strong El Nino in 2015/2016 could lead to a 0.21 degrees 0.07 degrees C GST jump.
    • Pacific sea surface temperatures, midlatitude atmospheric circulation, and widespread interannual anomalies in western U.S. streamflow

      Malevich, S. B.; Woodhouse, C. A.; Univ Arizona, Dept Geosci; Univ Arizona, Sch Geog & Dev; Department of Geosciences; University of Arizona; Tucson Arizona USA; School of Geography and Development; University of Arizona; Tucson Arizona USA (AMER GEOPHYSICAL UNION, 2017-05-28)
      Widespread droughts can have considerable impact on western United States (U.S.) streamflow but causes related to moisture delivery processes are not yet fully understood. Here we examine western U.S. streamflow records to identify robust leading modes of interannual variability and their links to patterns of ocean and atmospheric circulation. The leading mode of streamflow variability, a pattern of west-wide streamflow anomalies, accounts for approximately 50% of variability and is associated with persistent high-pressure anomalies related to ridges off the Pacific North American coast. The second mode of variability accounts for approximately 25% of variability and is associated with ocean and atmospheric conditions in the tropical Pacific. Our results suggest that the leading mode of streamflow variability in the western U.S. is more strongly associated with internally driven midlatitude atmospheric variability than equatorial Pacific sea surface temperatures.
    • Pacific-Atlantic Ocean influence on wildfires in northeast China (1774 to 2010)

      Yao, Qichao; Brown, Peter M.; Liu, Shirong; Rocca, Monique E.; Trouet, Valerie; Zheng, Ben; Chen, Haonan; Li, Yinchao; Liu, Duanyang; Wang, Xiaochun; et al. (AMER GEOPHYSICAL UNION, 2017-01-28)
      Identification of effects that climate teleconnections, such as El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), have on wildfires is difficult because of short and incomplete records in many areas of the world. We developed the first multicentury wildfire chronologies for northeast China from fire-scarred trees. Regional wildfires occurred every 7years from the 1700s to 1947, after which fire suppression policies were implemented. Regional wildfires occurred predominately during drought years and were associated with positive phases of ENSO and PDO and negative NAO. Twentieth century meteorological records show that this contingent combination of +ENSO/+PDO/-NAO is linked to low humidity, low precipitation, and high temperature during or before late spring fire seasons. Climate and wildfires in northeast China may be predictable based on teleconnection phases, although future wildfires may be more severe due to effects of climate change and the legacy of fire suppression.
    • 'PACLIMS': A component LIM system for high-throughput functional genomic analysis

      Donofrio, Nicole; Rajagopalon, Ravi; Brown, Douglas, 1955-; Diener, Stephen; Windham, Donald; Nolin, Shelly; Floyd, Anna; Mitchell, Thomas; Galadima, Natalia; Tucker, Sara; et al. (BioMed Central, 2005)
      BACKGROUND:Recent advances in sequencing techniques leading to cost reduction have resulted in the generation of a growing number of sequenced eukaryotic genomes. Computational tools greatly assist in defining open reading frames and assigning tentative annotations. However, gene functions cannot be asserted without biological support through, among other things, mutational analysis. In taking a genome-wide approach to functionally annotate an entire organism, in this application the ~11,000 predicted genes in the rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea), an effective platform for tracking and storing both the biological materials created and the data produced across several participating institutions was required.RESULTS:The platform designed, named PACLIMS, was built to support our high throughput pipeline for generating 50,000 random insertion mutants of Magnaporthe grisea. To be a useful tool for materials and data tracking and storage, PACLIMS was designed to be simple to use, modifiable to accommodate refinement of research protocols, and cost-efficient. Data entry into PACLIMS was simplified through the use of barcodes and scanners, thus reducing the potential human error, time constraints, and labor. This platform was designed in concert with our experimental protocol so that it leads the researchers through each step of the process from mutant generation through phenotypic assays, thus ensuring that every mutant produced is handled in an identical manner and all necessary data is captured.CONCLUSION:Many sequenced eukaryotes have reached the point where computational analyses are no longer sufficient and require biological support for their predicted genes. Consequently, there is an increasing need for platforms that support high throughput genome-wide mutational analyses. While PACLIMS was designed specifically for this project, the source and ideas present in its implementation can be used as a model for other high throughput mutational endeavors.
    • PaCTS 1.0: A Crowdsourced Reporting Standard for Paleoclimate Data

      Thirumalai, K.; Univ Arizona, Dept Geosci (AMER GEOPHYSICAL UNION, 2019)
      The progress of science is tied to the standardization of measurements, instruments, and data. This is especially true in the Big Data age, where analyzing large data volumes critically hinges on the data being standardized. Accordingly, the lack of community-sanctioned data standards in paleoclimatology has largely precluded the benefits of Big Data advances in the field. Building upon recent efforts to standardize the format and terminology of paleoclimate data, this article describes the Paleoclimate Community reporTing Standard (PaCTS), a crowdsourced reporting standard for such data. PaCTS captures which information should be included when reporting paleoclimate data, with the goal of maximizing the reuse value of paleoclimate data sets, particularly for synthesis work and comparison to climate model simulations. Initiated by the LinkedEarth project, the process to elicit a reporting standard involved an international workshop in 2016, various forms of digital community engagement over the next few years, and grassroots working groups. Participants in this process identified important properties across paleoclimate archives, in addition to the reporting of uncertainties and chronologies; they also identified archive-specific properties and distinguished reporting standards for new versus legacy data sets. This work shows that at least 135 respondents overwhelmingly support a drastic increase in the amount of metadata accompanying paleoclimate data sets. Since such goals are at odds with present practices, we discuss a transparent path toward implementing or revising these recommendations in the near future, using both bottom-up and top-down approaches.
    • Pain Catastrophizing and Arthritis Self-Efficacy as Mediators of Sleep Disturbance and Osteoarthritis Symptom Severity

      Tighe, Caitlan A; Youk, Ada; Ibrahim, Said A; Weiner, Debra K; Vina, Ernest R; Kwoh, C Kent; Gallagher, Rollin M; Bramoweth, Adam D; Hausmann, Leslie R M; Univ Arizona, Coll Med (OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2019-08-22)
      Objective. Sleep and pain-related experiences are consistently associated, but the pathways linking these experiences are not well understood. We evaluated whether pain catastrophizing and arthritis self-efficacy mediate the association between sleep disturbance and osteoarthritis (OA) symptom severity in patients with knee OA. Methods. We analyzed cross-sectional baseline data collected from Veterans Affairs (VA) patients enrolled in a clinical trial examining the effectiveness of a positive psychology intervention in managing pain from knee OA. Participants indicated how often in the past two weeks they were bothered by trouble falling asleep, staying asleep, or sleeping too much. We used validated scales to assess the primary outcome (OA symptom severity) and potential mediators (arthritis self-efficacy and pain catastrophizing). To test the proposed mediation model, we used parallel multiple mediation analyses with bootstrapping, controlling for sociodemographic and clinical characteristics with bivariate associations with OA symptom severity. Results. The sample included 517 patients (M-age = 64 years, 72.9% male, 52.2% African American). On average, participants reported experiencing sleep disturbance at least several days in the past two weeks (M = 1.41, SD = 1.18) and reported moderate OA symptom severity (M = 48.22, SD = 16.36). More frequent sleep disturbance was associated with higher OA symptom severity directly (b= 3.08, P <0.001) and indirectly, through higher pain catastrophizing (b = 0.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.20 to 1.11) and lower arthritis self-efficacy (b = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.42 to 1.42). Conclusions. Pain catastrophizing and arthritis self-efficacy partially mediated the association between sleep disturbance and OA symptom severity. Behavioral interventions that address pain catastrophizing and/or self-efficacy may buffer the association between sleep disturbance and OA symptom severity.
    • Pak2 regulates myeloid-derived suppressor cell development in mice

      Zeng, Yi; Hahn, Seongmin; Stokes, Jessica; Hoffman, Emely A.; Schmelz, Monika; Proytcheva, Maria; Chernoff, Jonathan; Katsanis, Emmanuel; Univ Arizona, Dept Pediat, Steele Childrens Res Ctr; Univ Arizona, Ctr Canc; et al. (AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY, 2017-10-10)
      Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are CD11b(+)Gr1(+) cells that induce T-cell hyporesponsiveness, thus impairing antitumor immunity. We have previously reported that disruption of Pak2, a member of the p21-activated kinases (Paks), in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) induces myeloid lineage skewing and expansion of CD11b(high)Gr1(high) cells in mice. In this study, we confirmed that Pak2-KO CD11b(high)Gr1(high) cells suppressed T-cell proliferation, consistent with an MDSC phenotype. Loss of Pak2 function in HSPCs led to (1) increased hematopoietic progenitor cell sensitivity to granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) signaling, (2) increased MDSC proliferation, (3) decreased MDSC sensitivity to both intrinsic and Fas-Fas ligand-mediated apoptosis, and (4) promotion of MDSCs by Pak2-deficient CD4(+) T cells that produced more interferon gamma, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and GM-CSF. Pak2 disruption activated STAT5 while downregulating the expression of IRF8, a well-described myeloid transcription factor. Together, our data reveal a previously unrecognized role of Pak2 in regulating MDSC development via both cell-intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms. Our findings have potential translational implications, as the efficacy of targeting Paks in cancer therapeutics may be undermined by tumor escape from immune control and/or acceleration of tumorigenesis through MDSC expansion.
    • Paleo-Asian oceanic slab under the North China craton revealed by carbonatites derived from subducted limestones

      Chen, Chunfei; Liu, Yongsheng; Foley, Stephen F.; Ducea, Mihai N.; He, Detao; Hu, Zhaochu; Chen, Wei; Zong, Keqing; Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona (GEOLOGICAL SOC AMER, INC, 2016-12)
      It is widely accepted that the lithospheric mantle under the North China craton (NCC) has undergone comprehensive refertilization due to input from surrounding subducted slabs. However, the possible contribution from the Paleo-Asian oceanic slab to the north is poorly constrained, largely because of the lack of convincing evidence for the existence of this slab under the NCC. We report here carbonatite intruding Neogene alkali basalts in the Hannuoba region, close to the northern margin of the NCC. Trace element patterns with positive Sr and U anomalies, negative high field strength elements (Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf, and Ti) and Ce anomalies, high Sr-87/Sr-86 ratios (0.70522-0.70796), and high delta O-18(SMOW) (standard mean ocean water) values (22.2%-23%) indicate that this carbonatite had a limestone precursor. However, the presence of coarse-grained mantle-derived clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, and olivine, and chemical features of the carbonates suggest that the carbonate melts were derived from the mantle. The carbonates have high Nd-143/Nd-144 ratios (0.51282-0.51298) and show negative correlation between CaO and Ni contents, resulting from reaction between carbonate melt and peridotite. Considering the regional tectonic setting, the carbonatite probably formed by melting of subducted sedimentary carbonate rocks that formed part of the Paleo-Asian oceanic slab, and thus could provide the first direct evidence for the presence of the Paleo-Asian oceanic slab beneath the NCC.
    • Paleoindians, paleolakes and paleoplayas: Landscape geoarchaeology of the Tularosa Basin, New Mexico

      Holliday, Vance T.; Harvey, Allison; Cuba, Matthew T.; Weber, Aimee M.; Univ Arizona, Sch Anthropol, Dept Geosci (ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, 2019-04-15)
      Karl Butzer was one of the first prehistorians to think about and write about people, ancient and modern, on the landscape. Moreover, as a geomorphologist he knew that past landscapes were as dynamic and varied as they are today - not static entities that formed the backdrop for human activity. That viewpoint is critical in understanding the physical environment faced by humans during the early peopling of the Americas (similar to 13,500 to similar to 10,000 cal YBP). North America was undergoing rapid environmental changes as the continent was coming out of the last Ice Age. In the southwestern part of the continent large paleolake levels were falling and smaller playa basins were aggrading as the area was occupied by Paleoindian groups such as Clovis, Folsom, and later First Americans. The paleolakes would have provided some resources, but modern gypsum deposits indicate that lake waters were unpotable. Numerous small depressions (playas) scattered around the floor of the Tularosa Basin contain muddy fills that span the Holocene and terminal Pleistocene, indicative of fresher water at least seasonally. Paleoindian sites tend to be clustered around these small basins and along drainages off of the mountains that flank the basin, as well as settings with good viewsheds rather than the main paleolake margins. Paleolakes were dramatic components of the late Pleistocene landscape in the southwest, but likely were not the primary attractions to the First Americans. (C) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    • Palliative Care for Pancreatic and Periampullary Cancer

      Perone, Jennifer A.; Riall, Taylor S.; Olino, Kelly; Department of Surgery, Banner-University Medical Center, University of Arizona (W B SAUNDERS CO-ELSEVIER INC, 2016-12)
      Most patients with pancreatic cancer will present with metastatic or locally advanced disease. Unfortunately, most patients with localized disease will experience recurrence even after multimodality therapy. As such, pancreatic cancer patients arrive at a common endpoint where decisions pertaining to palliative care come to the forefront. This article summarizes surgical, endoscopic, and other palliative techniques for relief of obstructive jaundice, relief of duodenal or gastric outlet obstruction, and relief of pain due to invasion of the celiac plexus. It also introduces the utility of the palliative care triangle in clarifying a patient's and family's goals to guide decision making.
    • Palliative care services in families of males with muscular dystrophy: Data from MD STARnet

      Andrews, Jennifer G; Pandya, Shree; Trout, Christina; Jaff, Treeva; Matthews, Dennis; Cunniff, Christopher; Meaney, F John; Univ Arizona, Dept Pediat (SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC, 2019-03-27)
      Introduction: Information on use of palliative care services among individuals with Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy is scant despite the clearly documented need. Methods: We examined associations between uptake of palliative care services by 233 males with Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy aged 12 and older for both caregiver and affected male characteristics using the Muscular Dystrophy Surveillance Tracking and Research Network baseline interview. Results: Ninety-one percent of caregivers (213/233) used at least one palliative care service. Case management had the highest frequency of use (59%). Use of palliative care was more frequently associated with the characteristics of affected males, as were some individual palliative care services. Utilization of six individual services differed among Muscular Dystrophy Surveillance Tracking and Research Network sites. While research suggests that pain is a frequent problem in Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy, only 12.5% reported use of pain management services. Discussion: Although palliative care use among families of males with Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy is high overall, there is much variability in use of individual services. Use of palliative care is driven by disease experience in the affected male. Many of the care recommendations for these individuals highlight the importance for early involvement of palliative care professionals.

      Bañados, Eduardo; Venemans, B. P.; Decarli, R.; Farina, E. P.; Mazzucchelli, C.; Walter, Fabian; Fan, X.; Stern, Daniel; Schlafly, E.; Chambers, K. C.; et al. (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2016-11-14)
      Luminous quasars at z > 5.6 can be studied in detail with the current generation of telescopes and provide us with unique information on the first gigayear of the universe. Thus far, these studies have been statistically limited by the number of quasars known at these redshifts. Such quasars are rare, and therefore, wide-field surveys are required to identify them, and multiwavelength data are required to separate them efficiently from their main contaminants, the far more numerous cool dwarfs. In this paper, we update and extend the selection for the z similar to 6 quasars presented in Banados et al. (2014) using the Pan- STARRS1 (PS1) survey. We present the PS1 distant quasar sample, which currently consists of 124 quasars in the redshift range 5.6 less than or similar to z less than or similar to 6.7 that satisfy our selection criteria. Of these quasars, 77 have been discovered with PS1, and 63 of them are newly identified in this paper. We present the composite spectra of the PS1 distant quasar sample. This sample spans a factor of similar to 20 in luminosity and shows a variety of emission line properties. The number of quasars at z > 5.6 presented in this work almost doubles the previously known quasars at these redshifts, marking a transition phase from studies of individual sources to statistical studies of the high-redshift quasar population, which was impossible with earlier, smaller samples.

      Hornbeck, J. B.; Swearingen, J. R.; Grady, C. A.; Williger, G. M.; Brown, A.; Sitko, M. L.; Wisniewski, J. P.; Perrin, M. D.; Lauroesch, J. T.; Schneider, G.; et al. (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2016-09-22)
      We have imaged GM Aurigae with the Hubble Space Telescope, detected its disk in scattered light at 1400 and 1650 angstrom, and compared these with observations at 3300 angstrom, 5550 angstrom, 1.1 mu m, and 1.6 mu m. The scattered light increases at shorter wavelengths. The radial surface brightness profile at 3300 angstrom shows no evidence of the 24 au radius cavity that has been previously observed in submillimeter observations. Comparison with dust grain opacity models indicates that. the surface of the entire disk is populated with submicron grains. We have compiled a. spectral energy distribution from 0.1 mu m to 1 mm. and used it to constrain a model of the star + disk system that includes the submillimeter cavity using the Monte Carlo radiative transfer code by Barbara Whitney. The best-fit model image indicates that the cavity should be detectable in the F330W bandpass if the cavity has been cleared of both large and small dust grains, but we do not detect it. The lack of an observed cavity can be explained by the presence of submicron grains interior to the submillimeter cavity wall. We suggest one explanation for this that. could be due to a planet of mass <9 M-J interior to 24 au. A unique cylindrical structure is detected in the far-UV data from the Advanced Camera for Surveys/ Solar Blind Channel. It is aligned along the system semiminor axis, but does not resemble an accretion-driven jet. The structure is limb. brightened and extends 190 +/- 35 au above the disk midplane. The inner radius of the limb. brightening is 40 +/- 10 au, just beyond the submillimeter cavity wall.