• Accuracy and confidence in perceptions of targets’ attachment to former partners: Do judges vary as a function of individual differences in attachment orientation?

      Borelli, Jessica L.; Peng, Xiaolin; Hong, Kajung; Froidevaux, Nicole M.; Sbarra, David A.; Univ Arizona (ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE, 2019-04)
      This study builds on prior research by examining the degree to which individual differences in judges' attachment orientations predict their accuracy and confidence in rating targets' ongoing attachment to former partners. Targets were recently separated/divorced adults (N = 132) who described their separation experiences. Naive judges (N-study (1) = 93, N-study (2) = 296) read transcripts of targets' separation narratives and rated targets' strength of ongoing attachment to their former partners. Judges' high accuracy did not vary by judges' attachment orientations. However, greater judge avoidance was associated with lower confidence in ratings. Greater attachment anxiety was linked with weaker associations between accuracy and confidence. We discuss findings in terms of their potential implications for partner selection and future studies that can assess this link. (C) 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Action of automorphisms on irreducible characters of symplectic groups

      Taylor, Jay; Univ Arizona, Dept Math, 617 N Santa Rita Ave, Tucson, AZ 85721 USA (ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE, 2018-07-01)
      Assume G is a finite symplectic group Sp(2n)(q) over a finite field F-q of odd characteristic. We describe the action of the automorphism group Aut(G) on the set Irr(G) of ordinary irreducible characters of G. This description relies on the equivariance of Deligne-Lusztig induction with respect to automorphisms. We state a version of this equivariance which gives a precise way to compute the automorphism on the corresponding Levi subgroup; this may be of independent interest. As an application we prove that the global condition in Spath's criterion for the inductive McKay condition holds for the irreducible characters of Sp(2n)(q). (C) 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Altered gene expression profile in a mouse model of SCN8A encephalopathy

      Sprissler, Ryan S.; Wagnon, Jacy L.; Bunton-Stasyshyn, Rosie K.; Meisler, Miriam H.; Hammer, Michael F.; ARL Division of Biotechnology, University of Arizona; Department of Neurology, University of Arizona (ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE, 2017-02)
      SCN8A encephalopathy is a severe, early-onset epilepsy disorder resulting from de novo gain-of-function mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel Na(v)1.6. To identify the effects of this disorder on mRNA expression, RNA-seq was performed on brain tissue from a knock-in mouse expressing the patient mutation p.Asn1768Asp (N1768D). RNA was isolated from forebrain, cerebellum, and brainstem both before and after seizure onset, and from age-matched wildtype littermates. Altered transcript profiles were observed only in forebrain and only after seizures. The abundance of 50 transcripts increased more than 3-fold and 15 transcripts decreased more than 3 fold after seizures. The elevated transcripts included two anti-convulsant neuropeptides and more than a dozen genes involved in reactive astrocytosis and response to neuronal damage. There was no change in the level of transcripts encoding other voltage-gated sodium, potassium or calcium channels. Reactive astrocytosis was observed in the hippocampus of mutant mice after seizures. There is considerable overlap between the genes affected in this genetic model of epilepsy and those altered by chemically induced seizures, traumatic brain injury, ischemia, and inflammation. The data support the view that gain-of-function mutations of SCN8A lead to pathogenic alterations in brain function contributing to encephalopathy.
    • The alternative spliced 3'-UTR mediated differential secretion of macrophage colony stimulating factor in breast cancer cells.

      Woo, Ho-Hyung; Chambers, Setsuko K; Univ Arizona, Canc Ctr; Univ Arizona, Dept Obstet & Gynecol (ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE, 2020-03-13)
      CSF-1 mRNA 3'UTR variants (var) are generated from alternative splicing. CSF-1 protein encoded by var-1 mRNA with long 3'UTR derived from exon-10 is rapidly secreted compared to the CSF-1 protein encoded by var-4 mRNA with short 3'UTR derived from exon-9. Secretion kinetics indicates that HuR, which binds the CSF-1 var-1 mRNA, but not var-4 mRNA, accelerates the secretion of CSF-1 protein. HuR over-expression increases the secretion rate of CSF-1 protein. In contrast, silencing of HuR does not have such an effect, suggesting other compensatory mechanisms. Effect of the CSF-1 mRNA variant 3'UTRs on cellular phenotype shows both CSF-1 var-1 or -4 mRNA is involved in the enhanced rates of migration and invasion observed by both in vitro in breast cancer cells. Our study indicates that the alternative splicing of CSF-1 mRNA 3'UTR can regulate differential secretion of CSF-1 protein. (C) 2020 Published by Elsevier Inc.
    • Application of a single-case intervention procedure to assess the replicability of a two-component instructional strategy

      Hwang, Yooyeun; Levin, Joel R.; Univ Arizona (ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE, 2019-01)
      A dual-component single-case multiple-baseline design and statistical analysis was implemented to assess the replicability of instructional-strategy effects that have been well established in previous conventional randomized "group" intervention research. The 15-week intervention study examined the efficacy of a sequentially presented pictorial "mnemonic numeric" strategy designed to help seven 11- and 12-year-old children remember the dates (centuries and decades) of various 18th, 19th, and 20th century inventions. Two different single-case multiple-baseline randomization-test procedures were applied to confirm a predicted set of differentiated experimental outcomes. Suggestions were provided for modifying and improving the methods' suitability for single-case educational intervention researchers.
    • Associations of air pollution with obesity and body fat percentage, and modification by polygenic risk score for BMI in the UK Biobank

      Furlong, Melissa A; Klimentidis, Yann C; Univ Arizona, Mel & Enid Zuckerman Coll Publ Hlth, Dept Commun Environm & Policy, Div Environm Hlth Sci; Univ Arizona, Mel & Enid Zuckerman Coll Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat (ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE, 2020-06)
      Air pollution has consistently been associated with cardiometabolic outcomes, although associations with obesity have only been recently reported. Studies of air pollution and adiposity have mostly relied on body mass index (BMI) rather than body fat percentage (BF%), and most have not accounted for noise as a possible confounder. Additionally, it is unknown whether genetic predisposition for obesity increases susceptibility to the obesogenic effects of air pollution. To help fill these gaps, we used the UK Biobank, a large, prospective cohort study in the United Kingdom, to explore the relationship between air pollution and adiposity, and modification by a polygenic risk score for BMI. We used 2010 annual averages of air pollution estimates from land use regression (NO2, NOX, PM2.5, PM2.5absorbance, PM2.5-10, PM10), traffic intensity (TI), inverse distance to road (IDTR), along with examiner-measured BMI, waist-hip-ratio (WHR), and impedance measures of BF%, which were collected at enrollment (2006-2010, n = 473,026) and at follow-up (2012-2013, n = 19,518). We estimated associations of air pollution with BMI, WHR, and BF% at enrollment and follow-up, and with obesity, abdominal obesity, and BF%-obesity at enrollment and follow-up. We used linear and logistic regression and controlled for noise and other covariates. We also assessed interactions of air pollution with a polygenic risk score for BMI. On average, participants at enrollment were 56 years of age, 54% were female, and 32% had completed college or a higher degree. Almost all participants (~95%) were white. All air pollution measures except IDTR were positively associated with at least one continuous measure of adiposity at enrollment. However, NO2 was negatively associated with BMI but positively associated with WHR at enrollment, and IDTR was also negatively associated with BMI. At follow-up (controlling for enrollment adiposity), we observed positive associations for PM2.5-10 with BMI, PM10 with BF%, and TI with BF% and BMI. Associations were similar for binary measures of adiposity, with minor differences for some pollutants. Associations of NOX, NO2, PM2.5absorbance, PM2.5 and PM10, with BMI at enrollment, but not at follow-up, were stronger among individuals with higher BMI polygenic risk scores (interaction p <0.05). In this large, prospective cohort, air pollution was associated with several measures of adiposity at enrollment and follow-up, and associations with adiposity at enrollment were modified by a polygenic risk score for obesity.
    • Beyond the Turk: Alternative platforms for crowdsourcing behavioral research

      Peer, Eyal; Brandimarte, Laura; Samat, Sonam; Acquisti, Alessandro; Eller College of Management, University of Arizona (ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE, 2017-05)
      The success of Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk) as an online research platform has come at a price: MTurk has suffered from slowing rates of population replenishment, and growing participant non-naivety. Recently, a number of alternative platforms have emerged, offering capabilities similar to MTurk but providing access to new and more naïve populations. After surveying several options, we empirically examined two such platforms, CrowdFlower (CF) and Prolific Academic (ProA). In two studies, we found that participants on both platforms were more naïve and less dishonest compared to MTurk participants. Across the three platforms, CF provided the best response rate, but CF participants failed more attention-check questions and did not reproduce known effects replicated on ProA and MTurk. Moreover, ProA participants produced data quality that was higher than CF's and comparable to MTurk's. ProA and CF participants were also much more diverse than participants from MTurk.
    • The bidirectional gut-brain-microbiota axis as a potential nexus between traumatic brain injury, inflammation, and disease

      Sundman, Mark H.; Chen, Nan-kuei; Subbian, Vignesh; Chou, Ying-hui; Department of Psychology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA (ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE, 2017-11)
      As head injuries and their sequelae have become an increasingly salient matter of public health, experts in the field have made great progress elucidating the biological processes occurring within the brain at the moment of injury and throughout the recovery thereafter. Given the extraordinary rate at which our collective knowledge of neurotrauma has grown, new insights may be revealed by examining the existing literature across disciplines with a new perspective. This article will aim to expand the scope of this rapidly evolving field of research beyond the confines of the central nervous system (CNS). Specifically, we will examine the extent to which the bidirectional influence of the gut-brain axis modulates the complex biological processes occurring at the time of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and over the days, months, and years that follow. In addition to local enteric signals originating in the gut, it is well accepted that gastrointestinal (GI) physiology is highly regulated by innervation from the CNS. Conversely, emerging data suggests that the function and health of the CNS is modulated by the interaction between 1) neurotransmitters, immune signaling, hormones, and neuropeptides produced in the gut, 2) the composition of the gut microbiota, and 3) integrity of the intestinal wall serving as a barrier to the external environment. Specific to TBI, existing pre-clinical data indicates that head injuries can cause structural and functional damage to the GI tract, but research directly investigating the neuronal consequences of this intestinal damage is lacking. Despite this void, the proposed mechanisms emanating from a damaged gut are closely implicated in the inflammatory processes known to promote neuropathology in the brain following TBI, which suggests the gut-brain axis may be a therapeutic target to reduce the risk of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy and other neurodegenerative diseases following TBI. To better appreciate how various peripheral influences are implicated in the health of the CNS following TBI, this paper will also review the secondary biological injury mechanisms and the dynamic pathophysiological response to neurotrauma. Together, this review article will attempt to connect the dots to reveal novel insights into the bidirectional influence of the gut-brain axis and propose a conceptual model relevant to the recovery from TBI and subsequent risk for future neurological conditions.
    • Body mass and cognitive decline are indirectly associated via inflammation among aging adults

      Bourassa, Kyle; Sbarra, David A.; Department of Psychology, University of Arizona (ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE, 2017-02)
      Inflammatory models of neurodegeneration suggest that higher circulating levels of inflammation can lead to cognitive decline. Despite established independent associations between greater body mass, increased inflammation, and cognitive decline, no prior research has explored whether markers of systemic inflammation might mediate the association between body mass and changes in cognitive functioning. To test such a model, we used two longitudinal subsamples (ns = 9066; 12,561) of aging adults from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) study, which included two cognitive measures components of memory and executive functioning, as well as measurements of body mass and systemic inflammation, assessed via C-reactive protein (CRP). Greater body mass was indirectly associated with declines in memory and executive functioning over 6 years via relatively higher levels of CRP. Our results suggest that systemic inflammation is one biologically plausible mechanism through which differences in body mass might influence changes in cognitive functioning among aging adults.
    • Ceres and the terrestrial planets impact cratering record

      Strom, R.G.; Marchi, S.; Malhotra, R.; Univ Arizona, Lunar & Planetary Lab (ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE, 2018-03)
      Dwarf planet Ceres, the largest object in the Main Asteroid Belt, has a surface that exhibits a range of crater densities for a crater diameter range of 5-300 km. In all areas the shape of the craters' size frequency distribution is very similar to those of the most ancient heavily cratered surfaces on the terrestrial planets. The most heavily cratered terrain on Ceres covers similar to 15% of its surface and has a crater density similar to the highest crater density on <1% of the lunar highlands. This region of higher crater density on Ceres probably records the high impact rate at early times and indicates that the other 85% of Ceres was partly resurfaced after the Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB) at similar to 4 Ga. The Ceres cratering record strongly indicates that the period of Late Heavy Bombardment originated from an impactor population whose size-frequency distribution resembles that of the Main Belt Asteroids. (C) 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    • Changes in physical activity, sedentary time, and risk of falling: The Women's Health Initiative Observational Study

      Bea, Jennifer W.; Thomson, Cynthia A.; Wallace, Robert B.; Wu, Chunyuan; Seguin, Rebecca A.; Going, Scott B.; LaCroix, Andrea; Eaton, Charles; Ockene, Judith K.; LaMonte, Michael J.; et al. (ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE, 2017-02)
      Falling significantly affects quality of life, morbidity, and mortality among older adults. We sought to evaluate the prospective association between sedentary time, physical activity, and falling among post-menopausal women aged 50-79 years recruited to the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study between 1993 and 1998 from 40 clinical centers across the United States. Baseline (B) and change in each of the following were evaluated at year 3 (Y3) and year 6 (Y6; baseline n= 93,676; Y3 n= 76,598; Y6 n= 75,428): recreational physical activity (MET-h/wk), sitting, sleeping (min/day), and lean body mass by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (subset N= 6475). Falls per year (0, 1, 2, >= 3) were assessed annually by self-report questionnaire and then dichotomized as = 1 and = 2 falls/year. Logistic regression models were adjusted for demographics, body mass index, fall history, tobacco and alcohol use, medical conditions, and medications. Higher baseline activity was associated with greater risk of falling at Y6 (18%; p for trend <0.0001). Increasing sedentary time minimally decreased falling (1% Y3; 2% Y6; p < 0.05). Increasing activity up to >= 9 MET-h/wk. (OR: 1.12, 95% CI: 1.03-1.22) or maintaining >= 9 MET-h/wk. (OR: 1.20, 95% CI: 1.13-1.29) increased falling at Y3 and Y6 (p for trend <0.001). Adding lean body mass to the models attenuated these relationships. Physically active lifestyles increased falling among post-menopausal women. Additional fall prevention strategies, such as balance and resistance training, should be evaluated to assist post-menopausal women in reaching or maintaining levels of aerobic activity known to prevent and manage several chronic diseases.
    • Character restrictions and multiplicities in symmetric groups

      Isaacs, I.M.; Navarro, Gabriel; Olsson, Jørn B.; Tiep, Pham Huu; Department of Mathematics, University of Arizona (ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE, 2017-05)
      We give natural correspondences of odd-degree characters of the symmetric groups and some of their subgroups, which can be described easily by restriction of characters, degrees and multiplicities.
    • Conservation agriculture and climate resilience

      Michler, Jeffrey D; Baylis, Kathy; Arends-Kuenning, Mary; Mazvimavi, Kizito; Univ Arizona, Dept Agr & Resource Econ (ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE, 2019-01-01)
      Agricultural productivity growth is vital for economic and food security outcomes which are threatened by climate change. In response, governments and development agencies are encouraging the adoption of 'climate-smart' agricultural technologies, such as conservation agriculture (CA). However, there is little rigorous evidence that demonstrates the effect of CA on production or climate resilience, and what evidence exists is hampered by selection bias. Using panel data from Zimbabwe, we test how CA performs during extreme rainfall events - both shortfalls and surpluses. We control for the endogenous adoption decision and find that use of CA in years of average rainfall results in no yield gains, and in some cases yield loses. However, CA is effective in mitigating the negative impacts of deviations in rainfall. We conclude that the lower yields during normal rainfall seasons may be a proximate factor in low uptake of CA. Policy should focus promotion of CA on these climate resilience benefits.
    • Could two negative emotions be a positive? The effects of anger and anxiety in enemyship

      Motro, Daphna; Sullivan, Daniel; University of Arizona, Eller College of Management; University of Arizona, Department of Psychology (ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE, 2017-03)
      Enemyship is an important but understudied interpersonal phenomenon. Prior research on this topic has focused on enemyship's cognitive, control-maintenance function following a threat. The present studies advance theory and research by showing the role of emotion, particularly anger, in this process. Using appraisal theory as a framework, we draw on recent research into approach and avoidance motivational dynamics during threat We propose an interaction between anxiety-inducing threat and enemy-directed anger on perceptions of control and certainty, and motivation. More specifically, we expect that when an anxiety-inducing threat is present, perceptions of control and certainty will be significantly higher when enemy-directed anger is also present than when it is not Additionally, we sought to demonstrate the consequences of these processes for motivation. Perhaps counterintuitively, we propose that individuals who experience anger at an enemy following an anxiety-inducing control threat will experience a boost in motivation, an effect mediated by perceptions of control and certainty. We find support for our moderated mediation model across three studies with undergraduate and working adults (Total N = 673).
    • Crop signalling: A novel crop recognition technique for robotic weed control

      Raja, Rekha; Slaughter, David C.; Fennimore, Steven A.; Nguyen, Thuy T.; Vuong, Vivian L.; Sinha, Neelima; Tourte, Laura; Smith, Richard F.; Siemens, Mark C.; Univ Arizona, Dept Biosyst Engn (ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE, 2019-10-10)
      Weed control is a significant cost for speciality crop producers, especially on organic farms. Agricultural operations are still largely dependent on hand weeding that is labour intensive and labour shortages and rising wages have led to a surge in food production costs. Thus, there is an inherent need to automate weed control and contain both labour costs and demands. Automatically distinguishing weeds from the crop plant is a complex problem since weeds come in a wide variety of colours, shapes, and sizes, and crop plant foliage is often overlapped with itself or occluded by the weeds. Current technology in commercial use, cannot reliably and effectively perform the differentiation task in such complex scenarios in real-time. As a solution to this problem, our team at the University of California, Davis has developed a novel concept called crop signalling, a technology to make crop plants machine readable and reliably distinguishable from weeds for automatic weed control. Four different techniques have been investigated and developed to make smart crop marking systems such as a) systemic markers, b) fluorescent proteins, c) plant labels and d) topical markers. Indoor experiments have been conducted for each method. Field experiments, using plant labels and the topical markers methods, have been successfully conducted for real-time weed control in tomato and lettuce. The results demonstrated that robots could automatically detect and distinguish 99.7% of the crop plants with no false positive errors in dense complex outdoor scenes with high weed densities. The crop/weed differentiation was thus effective, fast, reliable, and commercialisation of robotic weed control using the technique may be feasible.
    • Dark halos produced by current impact cratering on Mars

      Bart, Gwendolyn D.; Daubar, Ingrid J.; Ivanov, Boris A.; Dundas, Colin M.; McEwen, Alfred S.; Univ Arizona, Dept Planetary Sci (ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE, 2019-08)
      Hundreds of new impact craters have been observed to form on Mars since spacecraft began imaging that planet. New impact craters produced visible ejecta deposits and many of them also have visible rays, similar to lunar and mercurian craters. However, some of the new martian impact craters have a circular feature of relatively low reflectance that we call a "halo." This feature is distinct from the usual visible ejecta deposits or ray patterns. In this paper we present an observational study of this halo feature and we discuss the results of this study with respect to the nature of the halos: what they are and how they may have formed. To address these questions, we measured diameters of both halos and their central craters. We found a strong correlation between halo diameter and crater diameter, which indicates that the nature of the halos is fundamentally governed by the amount of impact energy available at their formation. Specifically, halo size is controlled by impact energy according to the non-linear relationship D-H proportional to E-2/3, where D-H is the diameter of the halo and E is the impact energy. We also found that certain factors may influence the formation of the halos: a thicker dust layer and lower elevations are both correlated with larger halos. From these correlations we conclude that the local surface characteristics as well as local atmospheric pressure influence the formation of the halos. Our description and analysis of the martian halo features provide a framework upon which specific halo formation mechanisms can be developed and tested in the future.
    • Debiased orbit and absolute-magnitude distributions for near-Earth objects

      Granvik, Mikael; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Jedicke, Robert; Bolin, Bryce; Bottke, William F.; Beshore, Edward; Vokrouhlický, David; Nesvorný, David; Michel, Patrick; Univ Arizona (ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE, 2018-09-15)
      The debiased absolute-magnitude and orbit distributions as well as source regions for near-Earth objects (NEOs) provide a fundamental frame of reference for studies of individual NEOs and more complex population-level questions. We present a new four-dimensional model of the NEO population that describes debiased steady-state distributions of semimajor axis, eccentricity, inclination, and absolute magnitude H in the range 17 < H < 25. The modeling approach improves upon the methodology originally developed by Bottke et al. (2000, Science 288, 2190-2194) in that it is, for example, based on more realistic orbit distributions and uses source-specific absolute-magnitude distributions that allow for a power-law slope that varies with H. We divide the main asteroid belt into six different entrance routes or regions (ER) to the NEO region: the v(6), 3:1J, 5:2J and 2:1J resonance complexes as well as Hungarias and Phocaeas. In addition we include the Jupiter-family comets as the primary cometary source of NEOs. We calibrate the model against NEO detections by Catalina Sky Surveys' stations 703 and G96 during 2005-2012, and utilize the complementary nature of these two systems to quantify the systematic uncertainties associated to the resulting model. We find that the (fitted) H distributions have significant differences, although most of them show a minimum power-law slope at H similar to 20. As a consequence of the differences between the ER-specific H distributions we find significant variations in, for example, the NEO orbit distribution, average lifetime, and the relative contribution of different ERs as a function of H. The most important ERs are the v(6) and 3:1J resonance complexes with JFCs contributing a few percent of NEOs on average. A significant contribution from the Hungaria group leads to notable changes compared to the predictions by Bottke et al. in, for example, the orbit distribution and average lifetime of NEOs. We predict that there are 962(-56)(+52) (802(-42)(+48) x 10(3)) NEOs with H < 17.75 (H < 25) and these numbers are in agreement with the most recent estimates found in the literature (the uncertainty estimates only account for the random component). Based on our model we find that relative shares between different NEO groups (Amor, Apollo, Aten, Atira, Vatira) are (39.4,54.4,3.5,1.2,0.3)%, respectively, for the considered H range and that these ratios have a negligible dependence on H. Finally, we find an agreement between our estimate for the rate of Earth impacts by NEOs and recent estimates in the literature, but there remains a potentially significant discrepancy in the frequency of Tunguska-sized and Chelyabinsk-sized impacts. (C) 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    • Defective lymphatic valve development and chylothorax in mice with a lymphatic-specific deletion of Connexin43.

      Munger, Stephanie J; Davis, Michael J; Simon, Alexander M; Department of Physiology, University of Arizona (ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE, 2017-01-15)
      Lymphatic valves (LVs) are cusped luminal structures that permit the movement of lymph in only one direction and are therefore critical for proper lymphatic vessel function. Congenital valve aplasia or agenesis can, in some cases, be a direct cause of lymphatic disease. Knowledge about the molecular mechanisms operating during the development and maintenance of LVs may thus aid in the establishment of novel therapeutic approaches to treat lymphatic disorders. In this study, we examined the role of Connexin43 (Cx43), a gap junction protein expressed in lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs), during valve development. Mouse embryos with a null mutation in Cx43 (Gja1) were previously shown to completely lack mesenteric LVs at embryonic day 18. However, interpreting the phenotype of Cx43(-/-) mice was complicated by the fact that global deletion of Cx43 causes perinatal death due to heart defects during embryogenesis. We have now generated a mouse model (Cx43(∆LEC)) with a lymphatic-specific ablation of Cx43 and show that the absence of Cx43 in LECs causes a delay (rather than a complete block) in LV initiation, an increase in immature valves with incomplete leaflet elongation, a reduction in the total number of valves, and altered lymphatic capillary patterning. The physiological consequences of these lymphatic changes were leaky valves, insufficient lymph transport and reflux, and a high incidence of lethal chylothorax. These results demonstrate that the expression of Cx43 is specifically required in LECs for normal development of LVs.
    • Denoising scanner effects from multimodal MRI data using linked independent component analysis

      Li, Huanjie; Smith, Stephen M; Gruber, Staci; Lukas, Scott E; Silveri, Marisa M; Hill, Kevin P; Killgore, William D S; Nickerson, Lisa D; Univ Arizona, Dept Psychiat (ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE, 2020-03)
      Pooling magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data across research studies, or utilizing shared data from imaging repositories, presents exceptional opportunities to advance and enhance reproducibility of neuroscience research. However, scanner confounds hinder pooling data collected on different scanners or across software and hardware upgrades on the same scanner, even when all acquisition protocols are harmonized. These confounds reduce power and can lead to spurious findings. Unfortunately, methods to address this problem are scant. In this study, we propose a novel denoising approach that implements a data-driven linked independent component analysis (LICA) to identify scanner-related effects for removal from multimodal MRI to denoise scanner effects. We utilized multi-study data to test our proposed method that were collected on a single 3T scanner, pre- and post-software and major hardware upgrades and using different acquisition parameters. Our proposed denoising method shows a greater reduction of scanner-related variance compared with standard GLM confound regression or ICA-based single-modality denoising. Although we did not test it here, for combining data across different scanners, LICA should prove even better at identifying scanner effects as between-scanner variability is generally much larger than within-scanner variability. Our method has great promise for denoising scanner effects in multi-study and in large-scale multi-site studies that may be confounded by scanner differences.
    • Dense populations of the microsporidian Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP) in feces of Penaeus vannamei exhibiting white feces syndrome and pathways of their transmission to healthy shrimp.

      Tang, Kathy F J; Han, Jee Eun; Aranguren, Luis Fernando; White-Noble, Brenda; Schmidt, Margeaux M; Piamsomboon, Patharapol; Risdiana, Eris; Hanggono, Bambang; Univ Arizona, Sch Anim & Comparat Biochem Sci, Aquaculture Pathol Lab (ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE, 2016-10)
      White feces syndrome (WFS) is an emerging problem for penaeid shrimp farming industries in SE Asia countries, Thailand, Malaysia, Vietnam, Indonesia, China, and in India. This occurrence of this syndrome is usually first evidenced by the appearance of white fecal strings floating on surface of the shrimp ponds. The gross signs of affected shrimp include the appearance of a whitish hindgut and loose carapace, and it is associated with reduced feeding and growth retardation. To investigate the nature of the white feces syndrome, samples of white feces and shrimp hepatopancreas tissue were collected from Penaeus vannamei in affected farms in Indonesia, and these were examined histologically. Within the white feces, we found densely packed spores of the microsporidian Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (abbreviated as EHP) and relatively fewer numbers of rod-shaped bacteria. From WFS ponds, hepatopancreas samples form 30 individual shrimp were analyzed by histology and in situ hybridization. The results showed that all of the shrimp examined were infected with EHP accompanied by septic hepatopancreatic necrosis (SHPN). Midgut epithelial cells were also infected and this increased the number of tissue types being affected by EHP. By PCR, EHP was detected in all the samples analyzed from WFS-affected ponds, but not in those sampled from healthy shrimp ponds. To determine the modes of transmission for this parasite, we performed feeding and cohabitation bioassays, the results showed that EHP can be transmitted through per os feeding of EHP-infected hepatopancreas tissue to healthy shrimp and through cohabitation ofinfected and healthy shrimp. In addition, we found the use of Fumagillin-B, an antimicrobial agent, was ineffective in either reducing or eliminating EHP in infected shrimp.