• Widespread Pain Is Associated with Increased Risk of No Clinical Improvement After TKA in Women

      Vina, Ernest R; Ran, Di; Ashbeck, Erin L; Kwoh, C Kent; Univ Arizona, Arthrit Ctr; Univ Arizona, Mel & Enid Zuckerman Coll Publ Hlth; Univ Arizona, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat; Univ Arizona, Dept Med, Div Rheumatol (LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS, 2019-10-16)
      Background When conservative treatments do not work, TKA may be the best option for patients with knee osteoarthritis, although a relatively large proportion of individuals do not have clinically important improvement after TKA. Evidence also suggests that women are less likely to benefit from TKA than men, but the reasons are unclear. Widespread pain disproportionately affects women and has been associated with worse outcomes after joint arthroplasty, yet it is unknown if the effect of widespread pain on TKA outcomes differs by patient gender. Questions/purposes (1) Does the association between widespread pain and no clinically important improvement in osteoarthritis-related pain and disability 2 years after TKA differ between men and women? (2) Does the use of pain medications 2 years after TKA differ between those with widespread pain and those without widespread pain before surgery? Methods Osteoarthritis Initiative () study participants were followed annually from March 2005 until October 2015. Participants who underwent TKA up to the 7-year follow-up visit with pain/disability assessment at the protocol-planned visit before TKA and at the second planned annual visit after surgery were included in the analysis. Among 4796 study participants, 391 had a confirmed TKA, including 315 with pain/disability assessment at the protocol-planned visit before TKA. Overall, 95% of participants (298) had the required follow-up assessment; 5% (17) did not have follow-up data. Widespread pain was defined based on the modified American College of Rheumatology criteria. Symptoms were assessed using the WOMAC pain (range 0 to 20; higher score, more pain) and disability (range 0 to 68; higher score, more disability) scores, and the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score for pain (range 0 to 100; higher score, less pain). Improvements in pain and disability were classified based on improvement from established clinically important differences (decrease in WOMAC pain >= 1.5; decrease in WOMAC disability >= 6.0; increase in Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score for pain >= 9). At baseline, more women presented with widespread pain than men (45% [84 of 184] versus 32% [36 of 114]). Probability and the relative risk (RR) of no clinically important improvement were estimated using a logistic regression analysis in which participants with widespread pain and those without were compared. The analyses were done for men and women separately, then adjusted for depression and baseline outcome scores. Results Among women, preoperative widespread pain was associated with an increased risk of no clinically important improvement 2 years after TKA, based on WOMAC pain scores (13.5% versus 4.6%; RR 2.93 [95% CI 1.18 to 7.30]; p = 0.02) and the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score for pain (16.5% versus 4.9%; RR 3.39 [95% CI 1.34 to 8.59]; p = 0.02). Given the lower and upper limits of the confidence intervals, our data are compatible with a broad range of disparate associations between widespread pain and lack of clinically important improvement in WOMAC pain scores (RR 0.77 [95% CI 0.22 to 2.70]; p = 0.68) and the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score for pain (RR 1.37 [95% CI 0.47 to 4.00]; p = 0.57) among men, as well as clinically important improvement in WOMAC disability scores among men (RR 0.72 [95% CI 0.20 to 2.55]; p = 0.61) and women (RR 1.98 [95% CI 0.92 to 4.26]; p = 0.08). Participants presenting with widespread pain before TKA were more likely than those without widespread pain to use medication for symptoms of knee osteoarthritis most days for at least 1 month 2 years after TKA (51% [61 of 120] versus 32% [57 of 178]; mean difference, 18.8 [95% CI 7.3 to 30.1]; p < 0.01). Conclusions Widespread pain before TKA was associated with an increased risk of no clinically important improvement in knee pain 2 years postoperatively among women. Because of the small number of men with widespread pain in the sample, the results for men were inconclusive. In clinical practice, screening TKA candidates for widespread pain may be useful, and expectations of surgical outcomes may need to be tempered if patients have a concurrent diagnosis of widespread pain. Future studies should include more men with widespread pain and investigate if treatment of widespread pain before or concurrent with TKA surgery may improve surgical outcomes.
    • Pharmacological DNA Demethylation Weakens Inhibitory Synapses in the Auditory Cortex and Re-opens the Critical Period for Frequency Map Plasticity

      Schwartz, Benjamin A; Wang, Weihua; Bao, Shaowen; Univ Arizona, Neurosci Program (PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2020-06-06)
      The critical period is a time of maximal plasticity within the cortex. The progression of the critical period is marked by experience-dependent transcriptional alterations in cortical neurons, which in turn shifts the excitatory-inhibitory balance in the brain, and accordingly reduces plasticity. Epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, control the transcriptional state of neurons, and have been shown to be dynamically regulated during the critical period. Here we show that adult animals have a significantly higher concentration of DNA methylation than critical period animals. Pharmacological reduction of DNA methylation in adult animals re-establishes critical period auditory map plasticity. Furthermore, the reduction of DNA methylation in adult animals, reverted intrinsic characteristics of inhibitory synapses to an immature state. Our data suggest that accumulation of DNA methylation during the critical period confers a mature phenotype to cortical neurons, which in turn, facilitates the reduction in plasticity seen after the critical period. (c) 2020 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    • Frequency of hand-to-head, -mouth, -eyes, and -nose contacts for adults and children during eating and non-eating macro-activities

      Wilson, Amanda M; Verhougstraete, Marc P; Beamer, Paloma I; King, Marco-Felipe; Reynolds, Kelly A; Gerba, Charles P; Univ Arizona, Coll Agr & Life Sci, Dept Environm Sci; Univ Arizona, Mel & Enid Zuckerman Coll Publ Hlth, Dept Commun Environm & Policy (NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2020-07-15)
      Hand-to-face contacts are important for estimating chemical and microbial exposures. Few studies describe children's hand-to-eye or -nose contacts or adults' hand-to-face contacts. The study objective was to characterize hand-to-head (mouth, eyes, nose, and other) contacts for children in a daycare and adults in multiple locations. Macro-activities and sequences of hand-to-face contacts were recorded for 263 people observed for 30 min each. Statistically significant differences between locations, males and females, adults and children, and during eating and non-eating macro-activities were evaluated. Discrete Markov chains were fit to observed contact sequences and compared among adults and children during eating and non-eating macro-activities. No significant differences in contact frequency were observed between males and females with the exception of hand-to-nose contacts. Children tended to touch the mouth, eyes, and nose more frequently than adults during non-eating macro-activities. Significant differences in contact frequency were observed between locations. Transitional probabilities indicated that children make repetitive mouth, eye, and nose contacts while adults frequently transition to contacts of the head other than the mouth, eyes, or nose. More data are needed to evaluate the effect of age on adults' contact frequencies and to confirm lack of statistically significant differences between adults and children during eating macro-activities.
    • Brownian fluctuations of flame fronts with small random advection

      Henderson, Christopher; Souganidis, Panagiotis E.; Univ Arizona, Dept Math (WORLD SCIENTIFIC PUBL CO PTE LTD, 2020-06-10)
      We study the effect of small random advection in two models in turbulent combustion. Assuming that. the velocity field decorrelates sufficiently fast, we (i) identify the order of the fluctuations of the front with respect to the size of the advection; and (ii) characterize them by the solution of a Hamilton-Jacobi equation forced by white noise. In the simplest case, the result yields, for both models, a front with Brownian fluctuations of the same scale as the size of the advection. That the fluctuations are the same for both models is somewhat. surprising, in view of known differences between the two models.
    • Correlates of cognitive impairment in adult cancer survivors who have received chemotherapy and report cognitive problems

      Gutenkunst, Shannon L; Vardy, Janette L; Dhillon, Haryana M; Bell, Melanie L; Univ Arizona, Stat Grad Interdisciplinary Program; Univ Arizona, Mel & Enid Zuckerman Coll Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat (SPRINGER, 2020-07-14)
      Objective Cognitive impairment negatively affects some cancer survivors who have completed chemotherapy; however, factors underlying this cognitive impairment remain poorly understood. We aimed to investigate (1) the relative importance of demographics, medical, and psychological characteristics associated with cognitive impairment and (2) the specific variables associated with cognitive impairment in adult cancer survivors who completed adjuvant chemotherapy. Methods We performed post hoc analyses of baseline data from early-stage cancer survivors with cognitive complaints who received adjuvant chemotherapy 0.5-5 years earlier and volunteered for a trial designed to improve cognition. The primary outcome of self-reported cognitive impairment was measured using a questionnaire; secondary outcome of objective cognitive impairment was measured using a computerized neuropsychological test battery. Hierarchical linear regression determined the relative importance of demographics, medical, and psychological characteristics in associations with both self-reported and objective cognitive impairment. Results The sample was 95% female and 89% breast cancer patients. The final model accounted for 33% of variation in self-reported cognitive impairment (n = 212, demographics 5%, medical 3%, and psychological 25%), with fatigue and stress as significant individual correlates (pvalues <= 0.0001). For the secondary analysis, the final model accounted for 19% of variation in objective cognitive impairment (n = 206, demographics 10%, medical 5%, and psychological 4%), with age, smoking history, and number of chemotherapy cycles as significant individual correlates. Conclusion We found that psychological characteristics are more important than demographic and medical characteristics in self-reported cognitive impairment, whereas other characteristics are more important in objective cognitive impairment. This suggests clinicians should investigate possible psychological problems in cancer survivors who self-report cognitive impairment.
    • ‘Personality in Its Natural Habitat’ Revisited: A Pooled, Multi‐sample Examination of the Relationships Between the Big Five Personality Traits and Daily Behaviour and Language Use

      Tackman, Allison M.; Baranski, Erica N.; Danvers, Alexander F.; SBARRA, DAVID A.; Raison, Charles L.; Moseley, Suzanne A.; Polsinelli, Angelina J.; Mehl, Matthias R.; Univ Arizona, Dept Psychol (WILEY, 2020-07-16)
      Past research using the Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR), an observational ambulatory assessment method for the real-world measurement of daily behaviour, has identified several behavioural manifestations of the Big Five domains in a small college sample (N = 96). With the use of a larger and more diverse sample of pooled data from N = 462 participants from a total of four community samples who wore the EAR from 2 to 6 days, the primary purpose of the present study was to obtain more precise and generalizable effect estimates of the Big Five-behaviour relationships and to re-examine the degree to which these relationships are gender specific. In an extension of the original article, the secondary purpose of the present study was to examine if the Big Five-behaviour relationships differed across two facets of each Big Five domain. Overall, while several of the behavioural manifestations of the Big Five were generally consistent with the trait definitions (replicating some findings from the original article), we found little evidence of gender differences (not replicating a basic finding from the original article). Unique to the present study, the Big Five-behaviour relationships were not always comparable across the two facets of each Big Five domain. (C) 2020 European Association of Personality Psychology
    • Conformal perturbation theory for twisted fields

      Keller, Christoph A; Zadeh, Ida G; Univ Arizona, Dept Math (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2020-03-06)
      We investigate second order conformal perturbation theory for Z(2) orbifolds of conformal field theories in two dimensions. To evaluate the necessary twisted sector correlation functions and their integrals, we map them from the sphere to its torus double cover. We discuss how this relates crossing symmetry to the modular group, and introduce a regularization scheme on the cover that allows to evaluate the integrals numerically. These methods do not require supersymmetry. As an application, we show that in the torus orbifold of 8 and 16 free bosons, Z(2) twist fields are marginal at first order, but stop being marginal at second order.
    • Flat bands in twisted bilayer transition metal dichalcogenides

      Zhang, Zhiming; Wang, Yimeng; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Ueno, Keiji; Tutuc, Emanuel; LeRoy, Brian J.; Univ Arizona, Dept Phys (NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2020-07-06)
      Using scanning tunnelling spectroscopy, the flat bands in twisted bilayer WSe(2)are shown near both 0 degrees and 60 degrees twist angles. The crystal structure of a material creates a periodic potential that electrons move through giving rise to its electronic band structure. When two-dimensional materials are stacked, the resulting moire pattern introduces an additional periodicity so that the twist angle between the layers becomes an extra degree of freedom for the resulting heterostructure. As this angle changes, the electronic band structure is modified leading to the possibility of flat bands with localized states and enhanced electronic correlations(1-6). In transition metal dichalcogenides, flat bands have been theoretically predicted to occur for long moire wavelengths over a range of twist angles around 0 degrees and 60 degrees (ref.(4)) giving much wider versatility than magic-angle twisted bilayer graphene. Here, we show the existence of a flat band in the electronic structure of 3 degrees and 57.5 degrees twisted bilayer WSe(2)samples using scanning tunnelling spectroscopy. Our direct spatial mapping of wavefunctions at the flat-band energy show that the localization of the flat bands is different for 3 degrees and 57.5 degrees, in agreement with first-principles density functional theory calculations(4).
    • Superiority of Bayes estimators over the MLE in high dimensional multinomial models and its implication for nonparametric Bayes theory

      Bhattacharya, Rabi; Oliver, Rachel; Univ Arizona, Dept Math (ELSEVIER, 2020-10)
      The performance of Bayes estimators is examined, in comparison with the MLE, in multinomial models with a relatively large number of cells. The prior for the Bayes estimator is taken to be the conjugate Dirichlet, i.e., the multivariate Beta, with exchangeable distributions over the coordinates, including the non-informative uniform distribution. The choice of the multinomial is motivated by its many applications in business and industry, but also by its use in providing a simple nonparametric estimator of an unknown distribution. It is striking that the Bayes procedure outperforms the asymptotically efficient MLE over most of the parameter spaces for even moderately large dimensional parameter spaces and rather large sample sizes. (C) 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    • Immunoglobulin A vasculitis associated with inflammatory bowel disease: a retrospective cohort study

      Villatoro-Villar, M; Crowson, C S; Warrington, K J; Makol, A; Koster, M J; Univ Arizona, Div Rheumatol, Arthrit Ctr (TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2020-05-27)
      Objective To describe the baseline characteristics and outcome of a series of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and immunoglobulin A vasculitis (IgAV). Method Patients with biopsy-proven IgAV with IBD were identified retrospectively. Data were abstracted from direct medical chart review. Each IBD-IgAV case was matched to two controls with IgAV but without IBD. Results Nine patients were identified (seven Crohn's disease, two ulcerative colitis). Mean length of time between IBD diagnosis and IgAV onset was 17.3 +/- 19.9 years. For patients on biologic treatment for IBD, mean length of time between biologic initiation and IgAV onset was 3.3 +/- 3.8 years. Active IBD at IgAV onset was present in 56%. Tumour necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi) were used for IBD in 89%. At IgAV onset, six patients were on treatment with TNFi; one subsequently discontinued, two switched to another TNFi, and three continued. At the last follow-up, three of five patients who remained on TNFi had full resolution of IgAV despite ongoing TNFi use. No differences were seen between cases with IBD IgAV and matched non-IBD-IgAV controls regarding development of end-stage renal disease, resolution of haematuria or proteinuria, and time to complete IgAV response. Conclusion Baseline characteristics and outcomes of patients with IBD-IgAV are similar to those with IgAV without IBD. Development of IgAV is not limited to patients with clinically active IBD. Whether TNFi use is related to the pathogenesis of IgAV in some patients with IBD remains unclear. Further research into pathophysiological connections between IBD and IgAV is needed.
    • Security symptoms

      Meyer, Dugan; Univ Arizona, Sch Geog & Dev (SAGE Publications, 2020)
      Gentrification is a security project. Though this claim is not new, existing scholarship on contemporary urban (in)security in the Global North, especially in the context of gentrification, has often struggled with a particular problem: how to account for the decidedly ambivalent character of securitization. Familiar frameworks like ‘revanchism’ and ‘fear of crime’ have proven insufficient alone to explain the seemingly paradoxical investment in insecurity that animates the security paradigm. In this article, I consider how psychoanalytic theory might be mobilized for a libidinal geography of urban (in)security, an approach that would focus less on the phantasmagoric referents against which society supposedly needs protection and more on the libidinal investments through which these referents are (re)produced and administered in order to cohere, sustain and naturalize a social and spatial order rooted in dispossession. Drawing on Lacanian articulations of fantasy, drive, jouissance and symptom and applying these concepts to a consideration of contemporary anti-gang policing in the United States, I demonstrate how ambivalence and ontological incoherence function not as evidence of security’s limits but rather as liberal social order’s very condition of possibility.
    • Amplification of waves from a rotating body

      Cromb, Marion; Gibson, Graham M.; Toninelli, Ermes; Padgett, Miles J.; Wright, Ewan M.; Faccio, Daniele; Univ Arizona, Wyant Coll Opt Sci (NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2020-06-22)
      Acoustic waves that carry orbital angular momentum are amplified as they pass through an absorbing disk when the rotation rate exceeds the frequency of the incident wave, thus providing an experimental demonstration of Zel'dovich amplification. In 1971, Zel'dovich predicted that quantum fluctuations and classical waves reflected from a rotating absorbing cylinder will gain energy and be amplified. This concept, which is a key step towards the understanding that black holes may amplify quantum fluctuations, has not been verified experimentally owing to the challenging experimental requirement that the cylinder rotation rate must be larger than the incoming wave frequency. Here, we demonstrate experimentally that these conditions can be satisfied with acoustic waves. We show that low-frequency acoustic modes with orbital angular momentum are transmitted through an absorbing rotating disk and amplified by up to 30% or more when the disk rotation rate satisfies the Zel'dovich condition. These experiments address an outstanding problem in fundamental physics and have implications for future research into the extraction of energy from rotating systems.
    • Label-free Mie Scattering Identification of Tumor Tissue Using an Angular Photodiode Array

      Bills, Matthew V; Yoon, Jeong-Yeol; Univ Arizona, Dept Biomed Engn (IEEE, 2020)
      Tumors differ from normal tissues in several meaningful ways, including cellular size, morphology, and protein expression, which will accordingly change the refractive index and the size/morphology of cells. There are also important differences in the tissue organization and unique tissue-specific cell densities. Instead of the time-consuming and labor-intensive histology involving the use of a benchtop microscope, a plot of Mie scattering intensities at a fixed wavelength against the scattering angle, which we referred to as “Mie spectrum,” is suggested as an alternative to identify a tumor from normal tissues. An angular photodiode array is developed to measure this Mie spectrum with three different light-emitting diodes (blue, green, and red) as light sources. The resulting Mie spectra show the characteristic peaks for the rat colonic tissues, and substantial differences can be found between the tumor and normal tissues. Two peaks were identified at 120° and 150° scattering angles, potentially representing the capillaries and colon cells, respectively. Contributions from crypts and goblet cells, represented by the scattering at 140°, were minimal. Substantial differences between the tumor and normal tissues were found with 45°–70° light irradiation angles.
    • Aluminum nanocomposites reinforced with monolayer polyaniline (C3N): assessing the mechanical and ballistic properties

      Eshkalak, Kasra Einalipour; Sadeghzadeh, Sadegh; Molaei, Fatemeh; Univ Arizona, Dept Min & Geol Engn (ROYAL SOC CHEMISTRY, 2020-05-25)
      This study unveils C3N, a new material that serves as an excellent reinforcement to enhance the mechanical properties of aluminum using a molecular dynamics simulation method. Results show that the C3N nanosheets greatly improve the mechanical properties of aluminum-based nanocomposites. With only 1.3 wt% C3N, the Young's modulus, fracture strength, and fracture strain increased by 27, 70, and 51 percent, respectively. A comparison between the reinforcement of graphene and C3N in an aluminum (Al) matrix shows that in terms of the mechanical properties, the graphene-aluminum composite is weaker than the C3N-aluminum composite in the tensile tests, but slightly stronger in the energy adsorption tests. Our findings show that the mechanical properties are highly dependent on the strain rate and temperature. The effects of various imperfections, such as the vacancy, crack, and void defects, on the mechanical properties were also studied. Results show that in the presence of void defects, the structure exhibited higher mechanical properties than when there were other defects. This phenomenon was found to be related to the decrease in the effective load transfer from aluminum to C3N. Furthermore, by increasing the weight percent of the nanosheets up to 5%, the energy absorption rate increased by 25% compared to the pure aluminum. When C3N was placed on top of the aluminum surface, the silicon nanoparticles were associated with a 35% energy adsorption by the nanocomposite. The results of this paper could be used to help understand and overcome some limitations in the fabrication of metallic nanocomposites with 2D material reinforcement.
    • Optimal damping coefficient for a class of continuous contact models

      Poursina, Mohammad; Nikravesh, Parviz E.; Univ Arizona, Dept Aerosp & Mech Engn (SPRINGER, 2020-06-03)
      In this study, we develop an analytical formula to approximate the damping coefficient as a function of the coefficient of restitution for a class of continuous contact models. The contact force is generated by a logical point-to-point force element consisting of a linear damper connected in parallel to a spring with Hertz force-penetration characteristic, while the exponent of deformation of the Hertz spring can vary between one and two. In this nonlinear model, it is assumed that the bodies start to separate when the contact force becomes zero. After separation, either the restitution continues or a permanent penetration is achieved. Therefore, this model is capable of addressing a wide range of impact problems. Herein, we apply an optimization strategy on the solution of the equations governing the dynamics of the penetration, ensuring that the desired restitution is reproduced at the time of separation. Furthermore, based on the results of the optimization process along with analytical investigations, the resulting optimal damping coefficient is analytically expressed at the time of impact in terms of system properties such as the effective mass, penetration velocity just before the impact, coefficient of restitution, and the characteristics of the Hertz spring model.
    • Parental Financial Education During Childhood and Financial Behaviors of Emerging Adults

      LeBaron, Ashley B.; Holmes, Erin K.; Jorgensen, Bryce L.; Bean, Roy A.; Univ Arizona, Family Studies & Human Dev, Norton Sch Family & Consumer Sci (SPRINGER PUBLISHING CO, 2020-03-16)
      The purpose of this article was to determine whether overt financial education from parents during childhood (retrospective measure collected in the same survey wave) is associated with a greater frequency of healthy financial management behaviors in emerging adulthood, and whether this relationship is dependent on gender Using a sample of emerging adults from the Flourishing Families dataset (N = 437), we ran two multivariate linear regressions one with and one without the interaction variable. Results suggest that financial education from parents during childhood is linked with a greater frequency of healthy financial behaviors in emerging adulthood but was not dependent on gender Financial educators should involve parents when teaching children about money, and they should educate parents on how to teach their children about money.
    • Event-Based Dynamic Graph Visualisation

      Simonetto, Paolo; Archambault, Daniel; Kobourov, Stephen; Univ Arizona (IEEE COMPUTER SOC, 2020-07)
      Dynamic graph drawing algorithms take as input a series of timeslices that standard, force-directed algorithms can exploit to compute a layout. However, often dynamic graphs are expressed as a series of events where the nodes and edges have real coordinates along the time dimension that are not confined to discrete timeslices. Current techniques for dynamic graph drawing impose a set of timeslices on this event-based data in order to draw the dynamic graph, but it is unclear how many timeslices should be selected: too many timeslices slows the computation of the layout, while too few timeslices obscures important temporal features, such as causality. To address these limitations, we introduce a novel model for drawing event-based dynamic graphs and the first dynamic graph drawing algorithm, DynNoSlice, that is capable of drawing dynamic graphs in this model. DynNoSlice is an offline, force-directed algorithm that draws event-based, dynamic graphs in the space-time cube (2D+time). We also present a method to extract representative small multiples from the space-time cube. To demonstrate the advantages of our approach, DynNoSlice is compared with state-of-the-art timeslicing methods using a metrics-based experiment. Finally, we present case studies of event-based dynamic data visualised with the new model and algorithm.
    • Duplication and functional divergence of a calcium sensor in the Brassicaceae

      Monihan, Shea M; Magness, Courtney A; Ryu, Choong-Hwan; McMahon, Michelle M; Beilstein, Mark A; Schumaker, Karen S; Univ Arizona, Sch Plant Sci (OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2020-05-09)
      The presence of varied numbers of CALCINEURIN B-LIKE10 (CBL10) calcium sensor genes in species across the Brassicaceae and the demonstrated role of CBL10 in salt tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana and Eutrema salsugineum provided a unique opportunity to determine if CBL10 function is modified in different species and linked to salt tolerance. Salinity effects on species growth and cross-species complementation were used to determine the extent of conservation and divergence of CBL10 function in four species representing major lineages within the core Brassicaceae (A. thaliana, E. salsugineum, Schrenkiella parvula, and Sisymbrium irio) as well as the first diverging lineage (Aethionema arabicum). Evolutionary and functional analyses indicate that CBL10 duplicated within expanded lineage II of the Brassicaceae and that, while portions of CBL10 function are conserved across the family, there are species-specific variations in CBL10 function. Paralogous CBL10 genes within a species diverged in expression and function probably contributing to the maintenance of the duplicated gene pairs. Orthologous CBL10 genes diverged in function in a species-specific manner, suggesting that functions arose post-speciation. Multiple CBL10 genes and their functional divergence may have expanded calcium-mediated signaling responses and contributed to the ability of certain members of the Brassicaceae to maintain growth in salt-affected soils.
    • The Society of Behavioral Sleep Medicine (SBSM) COVID-19 Task Force: Objectives and Summary Recommendations for Managing Sleep during a Pandemic

      Crew, Earl Charles; Baron, Kelly Glazer; Grandner, Michael A; Ievers-Landis, Carolyn E; McCrae, Christina S; Nadorff, Michael R; Nowakowski, Sara; Ochsner Margolies, Skye; Hansen, Kathryn; Univ Arizona, Coll Med, Dept Psychiat (ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2020-07-03)
      As a response to clinical observations that the pervasive stress and social/environmental disruptions from the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic have also impacted sleep, the Society of Behavioral Sleep Medicine (SBSM) convened the COVID-19 Task Force with goals to identify and disseminate information that could be useful in addressing sleep concerns during this crisis. Participants Members of the SBSM COVID-19 Task Force. Results/Conclusions Herein is a summary of the resources developed by the SBSM COVID-19 Task force, which includes links to online materials developed for use by providers and patients, as well as brief descriptions of key recommendations by the Task Force for specific sleep conditions (e.g., acute insomnia, nightmares) and vulnerable populations (e.g., parents, essential/healthcare workers, older adults).
    • Depletion of microglia in developing cortical circuits reveals its critical role in glutamatergic synapse development, functional connectivity, and critical period plasticity

      Ma, Xiaokuang; Chen, Ke; Cui, Yuehua; Huang, Guanqun; Nehme, Antoine; Zhang, Le; Li, Handong; Wei, Jing; Liong, Katerina; Liu, Qiang; et al. (WILEY, 2020-06-28)
      Microglia populate the early developing brain and mediate pruning of the central synapses. Yet, little is known on their functional significance in shaping the developing cortical circuits. We hypothesize that the developing cortical circuits require microglia for proper circuit maturation and connectivity, and as such, ablation of microglia during the cortical critical period may result in a long-lasting circuit abnormality. We administered PLX3397, a colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor inhibitor, to mice starting at postnatal day 14 and through P28, which depletes >75% of microglia in the visual cortex (VC). This treatment largely covers the critical period (P19-32) of VC maturation and plasticity. Patch clamp recording in VC layer 2/3 (L2/3) and L5 neurons revealed increased mEPSC frequency and reduced amplitude, and decreased AMPA/NMDA current ratio, indicative of altered synapse maturation. Increased spine density was observed in these neurons, potentially reflecting impaired synapse pruning. In addition, VC intracortical circuit functional connectivity, assessed by laser scanning photostimulation combined with glutamate uncaging, was dramatically altered. Using two photon longitudinal dendritic spine imaging, we confirmed that spine elimination/pruning was diminished during VC critical period when microglia were depleted. Reduced spine pruning thus may account for increased spine density and disrupted connectivity of VC circuits. Lastly, using single-unit recording combined with monocular deprivation, we found that ocular dominance plasticity in the VC was obliterated during the critical period as a result of microglia depletion. These data establish a critical role of microglia in developmental cortical synapse pruning, maturation, functional connectivity, and critical period plasticity.