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  • Flash Lidar On-Orbit Performance at Asteroid Bennu

    Church, E.; Bourbeau, T.; Curriden, J.; Deguzman, A.; Jaen, F.; Ma, H.; Mahoney, K.; Miller, C.; Short, B.; Waldorff, K.; et al. (Univelt, Inc., 2020)
    NASA’s Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, and Security-Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) spacecraft is currently orbiting asteroid (101955) Bennu with the ultimate goal of collecting a sample from the asteroid’s surface and returning it to Earth. After launching from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in September 2016, the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft travelled for nearly two years before arriving at asteroid Bennu in December 2018. Before entering orbit around Bennu, the spacecraft conducted a series of detailed surface scans. At the time, this achievement marked the closest orbit of a planetary body by a spacecraft, approximately 1.3 km, and set the record for Bennu as the smallest body ever orbited. Surveillance of Bennu continued in preparation for selecting a site to collect a regolith sample from the surface. The flash LIDAR is one of the navigation sensors for the Touch and Go (TAG) event. Several checkouts of the instrument were performed in flight including lasing at the surface of Bennu to verify its performance. Analyzing the LIDAR data over the asteroid surface against the shape model produced range data well within accuracy requirements. The LIDAR has performed nominally in flight as the first flash LIDAR used in a deep space mission. There has been no degradation to the laser and sensor, and no optical alignment issues have been observed.
  • Consumption of walnuts suppresses the conversion of palmitic to palmitoleic acid and enhances omega-3 fatty acid metabolism in the heart of fructose-fed rats

    Romić, Snježana; Tepavčević, Snežana; Popović, Tamara; Zec, Manja; Stojiljković, Mojca; Ćulafić, Tijana; Bošković, Maja; Korićanac, Goran; School of Nutritional Sciences and Wellness, University of Arizona (Informa UK Limited, 2022-08-02)
    Walnut consumption mostly has a positive implication for cardiovascular health. Walnut diet effects on the cardiac fatty acid (FA) metabolism of healthy rats and those with fructose diet-induced metabolic burden were analysed. Both walnuts and fructose increased CD36 transporter level and the nuclear content of some/all of Lipin 1/PPARα/PGC-1 complex partners, as well as cytosolic and nuclear FOXO1. However, fructose, independently of walnuts, increased the content of palmitic (PA), oleic, and vaccenic acid (VA), while in walnut-fed rats failed to increase palmitoleic acid (POA) level and the POA/PA ratio, as well as total MUFA content. In opposite, walnuts reduced the level of PA and VA and increased alpha-linolenic, eicosapentaenoic and docosapentaenoic acid level, regardless of fructose. In conclusion, both fructose and walnuts stimulated the uptake and oxidation of FA in the heart, but the walnuts, opposite to fructose, favourably altered cardiac FA profile in healthy and metabolically compromised rats.
  • Cultivating a Community of Viewers in Africa: How Sissako Frames Spectatorship and Performance in His Films

    Taoua, P.; University of Arizona (Indiana University Press, 2022)
    Critical discussion of Abderrahmane Sissako's major films, Life on Earth (1998), Waiting for Happiness (2002), Bamako (2006), and Timbuktu (2014), explores issues related to spectatorship, live performance, and intertextuality. In particular, this essay looks at how this filmmaker frames spectatorship within his film narratives to bring the process of image-making up for reconsideration. These self-reflexive moments are examined in relation to film as an art form, issues of genre, and the history of cinema. The essay also looks at how live performances are embedded alongside scenarios of audiovisual spectatorship to draw our attention to the formation of audiences in different African settings, and to suggest an analogy between live and recorded performances. Some attention is also given to intertextuality and how Sissako references classic films by Ousmane Sembene and Djibril Diop Mambety to cultivate an awareness of film history in his viewers. By drawing on and developing insights from contributions by Karin Barber, Tsitsi Jaji, and Akin Adesokan the essay seeks to define the importance of these meta-cinematic elements in the film narratives of one of the most impactful filmmakers of his generation.
  • Microscale Additive Assembly with Optical Tweezers

    Melzer, Jeffrey E.; Shultz, Natalie K.; McLeod, Euan; Wyant College of Optical Sciences, The University of Arizona (Optica Publishing Group, 2022)
    The ability to fabricate three-dimensional structures with microscale resolution is critical to many emerging applications. We use an optical tweezers platform with biochemical linking mechanism to assemble 3D structures consisting of hundreds of individual building blocks.
  • The assessment of memes as digital multimodal composition in L2 classrooms

    Ryu, Jieun; Kim, Young Ae; Eum, Seungmin; Park, Seojin; Chun, Sojung; Yang, Sunyoung; University of Arizona (Elsevier BV, 2022-09)
    Digital multimodal writing has become predominant in our students’ lives in and outside the L2 classrooms. While many L2 educators integrate various multimodal projects into their curriculum, internet memes and their assessment have not been explored in depth in L2 settings, although memes have potential to be valuable multimodal writing tasks. The purpose of this study is to better understand how memes can be incorporated and assessed in L2 classrooms. Twenty-seven student-created memes in a low-intermediate Korean as a Foreign Language course at a large university were collected and analyzed. The findings indicated that the student-created memes successfully addressed the multimodal aspect of the meme genre, universal and specific cultural references, and language aspects specific to the genre of memes. Our analyses of the memes suggest three key components to assess this multimodal writing project in addition to its overall task/functions: 1) multimodal aspects that include understanding the interplay between multiple modes for an effective message in a given context; 2) cultural aspects, demonstrating cultural knowledge and its application, recognizing the semiotic importance of multimodal expression in the target community; and 3) language aspects as an effective communication medium, demonstrating genre knowledge of the specific task and language accuracy.
  • “False peak” creation in the Flynn Creek marine target impact crater

    Bray, V. J.; Hagerty, J. J.; Collins, G. S.; Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona (Wiley, 2022-05-19)
    Impacts into marine targets are known to create abnormal crater morphologies. We investigate the formation of the ~ 4 km diameter Flynn Creek marine target impact crater using the iSALE hydrocode. We compare simulation results to topographic profiles, mineral pressure indicators, and breccia sequencing from drill cores to determine the most likely sea depth at this location at the time of impact (~360 Ma, Tennessee, USA): 700 – 800 m. Both the peak shock pressure produced by the impact, and the mechanism(s) of central peak formation differ with sea depth. The large central mound of Flynn Creek could have been produced in three distinct ways, all requiring the presence of an ocean: 1) a relatively cohesive rim collapse deposit that reached the crater center as part of a ground flow and came to rest on top of the existing crater stratigraphy; 2) chaotic resurge of ejecta with the returning ocean that deposited at the crater center; 3) large uplift facilitated by the removal of overburden pressure from a deep ocean. The first two of these mechanisms create “False peaks” in which high-shock uplifted material and original crater floor are buried beneath > 200 meters of relatively low shock material. Our simulations suggest that drilling of marine impact sites might require deeper than expected drill cores, so that any high-pressure mineralogical indicators at depth can be accessed.
  • Chronic kidney disease unawareness and determinants using 1999-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Data

    Florea, Ana; Jacobs, Elizabeth T; Harris, Robin B; Klimentidis, Yann C; Thajudeen, Bijin; Kohler, Lindsay N; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health, University of Arizona; Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, College of Medicine, University of Arizona; Department of Health Promotion Sciences, Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health, University of Arizona
    BACKGROUND: Although chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects 15% of the United States (US) population, <10% of the US CKD population is aware of their disease. This is significant as untreated CKD can progress to end-stage renal disease which would require dialysis or transplantation. This study aimed to provide updated information regarding US CKD unawareness. METHODS: Data from the 1999-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used (n = 38 474); response rate > 70%. CKD self-report and lab-confirmed CKD were used to assess CKD unawareness. Adjusted logistic regression models examined association between unawareness and patient characteristics. RESULTS: In individuals with lab-confirmed CKD (n = 7137, 14.3%), 91.5% answered 'no' to self-report question; in those without CKD, 1.1% answered 'yes' to self-report question. In those with lab-confirmed CKD, in the adjusted models, increased age [odds ratio (ORs), 1.03 (95%CI, 1.02-1.04)] and female sex [OR, 1.37 (95%CI, 1.08-1.72)] were statistically significantly associated with greater odds of being unaware of CKD. CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrated high unawareness of disease status as there was a discrepancy between respondents' self-reported CKD diagnosis and lab-confirmed CKD. Older individuals and women may be more unaware of their CKD; these groups should be queried about reasons for increased unawareness.
  • Talk is cheap: Parent financial socialization and emerging adult financial well‐being

    LeBaron‐Black, Ashley B.; Curran, Melissa A.; Hill, E. Jeffrey; Toomey, Russell B.; Speirs, Katherine E.; Freeh, Margaret E.; Family Studies and Human Development, University of Arizona (Wiley, 2022-08-09)
    Objective: We test how three main methods of family financial socialization (retrospectively reported) are uniquely associated with three indicators of financial well-being, and whether financial self-efficacy and financial management behaviors mediate these associations. Background: Although the link between family financial socialization and financial well-being in emerging adulthood is well established, no previous study has differentiated between the three main socialization methods nor tested their unique pathways. We expand on family financial socialization theory to begin addressing this gap. Method: We utilize reliable and valid measures of parent financial socialization and data from 4,182 U.S. emerging adults. Results: Structural equation modeling revealed that (a) parent financial modeling was directly associated with financial behaviors and financial satisfaction and indirectly associated with all three financial outcomes through financial behaviors, (b) experiential learning was directly associated with financial self-efficacy and indirectly associated with all three financial outcomes through financial self-efficacy, and (c) parent–child financial discussion had zero direct or indirect associations. Conclusion: To prepare children and adolescents for future financial well-being, parents should focus on modeling financial behaviors and providing experiential learning opportunities rather than lecturing. Implications: To improve the financial well-being of emerging adults, educators should promote parent financial modeling and experiential learning.
  • Late Oligocene - Miocene morpho-tectonic evolution of the central Gangdese batholith constrained by low-temperature thermochronology

    Su, Wenbo; He, Zhiyuan; Zhong, Linglin; Glorie, Stijn; Zhong, Kanghui; Jepson, Gilby; De Grave, Johan; Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona (Elsevier BV, 2022-10)
    The morpho-tectonic evolution of the Tibetan Plateau is controlled by complicated interactions between tectonic uplift and surface erosion. The Gangdese batholith in the southern Lhasa terrane is a key orogenic belt for exploring the complicated morpho-tectonic evolution of the Tibetan Plateau. In this contribution, we apply apatite fission track (AFT) thermochronology to constrain the thermo-tectonic evolution of the central segment of the Gangdese batholith. Twenty-four granitoid samples were collected from both river valleys (e.g., the Yarlung and Xiang Rivers) and from the internal batholith areas located farther from river drainage (and/or local faults) networks. All samples exhibit Miocene AFT ages between ∼19.9 and ∼ 6.1 Ma. Inverse thermal history modeling results reveal that the central Gangdese batholith underwent a two-stage accelerated basement cooling in the Miocene. The first cooling stage took place during the late Oligocene to middle Miocene (∼25–15 Ma), this period of moderate to rapid basement cooling coincides with activity along the Gangdese thrust and Great Counter thrust system, and the Oligocene-Miocene delamination of the Lhasa lithosphere and concomitant asthenosphere upwelling. These tectonic processes acted as first-order control on regional basement uplift, denudation and exhumation. Second, a middle-late Miocene (∼14–5 Ma) rapid cooling is widely recognized in the whole Gangdese batholith. We suggest that this middle-late Miocene cooling is due to exhumation in response to tectonic and surface erosion processes such as N-S normal faults and enhanced river incision induced by the intensification of Asian monsoon. Finally, in combination with published low-temperature thermochronological and paleoaltimetry data, it is deduced that the present-day low-relief landscape of the southern Lhasa terrane resulted from a long-term balance between intense regional tectonic activity and surface erosion.
  • Dual-comb absorption spectroscopy of molecular CeO in a laser-produced plasma

    Rhoades, Ryan T.; Weeks, Reagan R. D.; Erickson, Seth E.; Lecaplain, Caroline; Harilal, Sivanandan S.; Phillips, Mark C.; Jason Jones, R.; James C. Wyant College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona (Optica Publishing Group, 2022-05-05)
    Broadband and high-resolution absorption spectra of molecular cerium oxide (CeO) are obtained in a laser-produced plasma using dual-comb spectroscopy. Simultaneous measurements of Ce and CeO are used to probe time-resolved dynamics of the system. A spectral resolution of 1.24 GHz (2.4 pm) over a bandwidth of 378.7–383.7 THz (781.1–791.5 nm) allows simultaneous detection of hundreds of closely spaced rotational transitions in complex CeO bands.
  • Progressing into disaster: The railroad and the spread of cholera in a provincial Ottoman town

    Schweig, Alexander; Department of History, University of Arizona (SAGE Publications, 2022-08-10)
    The nineteenth century is often remembered as the age in which steamships and steam locomotives connected the globe with a speed and efficiency previously unseen. Although contemporaries frequently equated the use of these rapid-transportation technologies with the progress of civilization, their expansion also had some negative consequences. Among these was the more rapid and widespread diffusion of many diseases along transportation corridors as nonhuman stowaways on ships and trains. Most infamously, cholera extended its reach globally by appropriating and using modern transportation routes in ways that were unintended and disastrous for their human creators. This article goes beyond the technological optimism of the time, and its now widely accepted pitfalls, and expands the scope of Anatolian provincial modernization to incorporate a complex web of interactions between human and nonhuman agents in the context of technological use and nonuse. It argues for a complex cocreation of modern conditions between these agents, rather than seeing these conditions as solely produced by human actions or environmental limits. Among the different human agents, interaction greatly increased between Ottomans and European states and their citizens. As the Ottoman Empire became increasingly integrated into global transportation and economic networks, it also experienced the spread of cholera. In the Anatolian interior, cholera epidemics spread along the railroad. I examine the 1893 cholera epidemic in Eskişehir, an important junction town on the Ottoman Anatolian Railroad, which had just begun operation the previous year. The railroad was widely celebrated for its intended uses: tremendously increasing the speed and transportable volume of cargo and enabling travel for military and nonmilitary purposes. The cholera epidemic, however, was enabled by the unwitting use of the railroad lines as conveyors of sickness and death. Furthermore, human attempts to stop cholera’s spread by interrupting train service undermined the technology’s intended uses but also demonstrated the availability and potential effectiveness of nonuse as an option.
  • Determinant of the Finite Volume Laplacian

    Doehrman, Thomas; Glickenstein, David; Mathematics Department, University of Arizona (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2022-08-26)
    The finite volume Laplacian can be defined in all dimensions and is a natural way to approximate the operator on a simplicial mesh. In the most general setting, its definition with orthogonal duals may require that not all volumes are positive; an example is the case corresponding to two-dimensional finite elements on a non-Delaunay triangulation. Nonetheless, in many cases two- and three-dimensional Laplacians can be shown to be negative semidefinite with a kernel consisting of constants. This work generalizes work in two dimensions that gives a geometric description of the Laplacian determinant; in particular, it relates the Laplacian determinant on a simplex in any dimension to certain volume quantities derived from the simplex geometry.
  • Incorporating habitat suitability, landscape distance, and resistant kernels to estimate conservation units for an imperiled terrestrial snake

    Bauder, Javan M.; Chandler, Houston C.; Elmore, Michele L.; Jenkins, Christopher L.; U.S. Geological Survey, Arizona Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, University of Arizona; School of Natural Resources and the Environment, University of Arizona (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2022-08-25)
    Context: Wildlife distributions are often subdivided into discrete conservation units to aid in implementing management and conservation objectives. Habitat suitability models, resistance surfaces, and resistant kernels provide tools for delineating spatially explicit conservation units but guidelines for parameterizing resistant kernels are generally lacking. Objectives: We used the federally threatened eastern indigo snake (Drymarchon couperi) as a case study for calibrating resistant kernels using observed movement data and resistance surfaces to help delineate habitat-based conservation units. Methods: We simulated eastern indigo snake movements under different resistance surface and resistant kernel parameterizations and selected the scenario that produced simulated movement distances that best approximated the maximum observed annual movement distance. We used our calibrated resistant kernel to model range-wide connectivity and compared delineated conservation units to Euclidean distance-based population units from the recent eastern indigo snake species status assessment (SSA). Results: We identified a total of 255 eastern indigo snake conservation units, with numerous large (2500–5000 ha of suitable habitat) conservation units across the eastern indigo snake distribution. There was substantial variation in the degree of overlap with the SSA population units likely reflecting the spatial heterogeneity in habitat suitability and landscape resistance. Conclusion: Our calibration approach is widely applicable to other systems for parameterizing biologically meaningful resistant kernels. Our conservation units can be used to prioritize future eastern indigo snake conservation efforts, identify areas where more survey work is needed, or identify small, isolated populations with high extinction risks.
  • The process mineralogy of leaching sandstone-hosted uranium-vanadium ores

    Radwany, Molly R.; Barton, Isabel F.; Department of Mining & Geological Engineering, University of Arizona (Elsevier BV, 2022-09)
    In the United States, sandstone-hosted ore deposits of the Paradox Basin (Colorado Plateau) are major resources of uranium and vanadium, two metals important to green energy among other applications. Despite historic and current mining interest, and their significance as major domestic resources of critical elements, the geometallurgy of these deposits has received little study. This article documents the geometallurgy and process mineralogy of the U-V ores and identifies the principal barriers to optimal recovery by acid leaching. Most of the metals occur as pitchblende (mixed uranium oxide-silicate), V-hydroxides, V-bearing phyllosilicates, and diverse vanadates of U, Pb, Cu, and other metals. Commercial extraction is by two-stage heated tank leaching with H2SO4 and NaClO3, yielding high U but lower V recovery (70–75% in the industrial operation). Laboratory leaching experiments coupled with comparisons of head and residue mineralogy indicate that the unrecovered U consists of micron-scale pitchblende grains locked within quartz and other insoluble minerals. The principal cause of suboptimal V recovery is the V-phyllosilicates, which show variable but generally poor solubility at room temperatures. An ancillary cause is locking of a small amount of fine-grained V-hydroxide and pitchblende by authigenic quartz and V-phyllosilicates. Comparison with other global V resources suggests that variable solubility of V-phyllosilicate ore minerals may also diminish recovery from more common ore deposit types, such as V hosted in black shales or stone coal, particularly in heap leaching of low-grade ores at coarse grain sizes.
  • The fatigue of multilateralism: A new hope for international law—Afterword to the Foreword by Karen Alter

    Puig, Sergio; International Trade and Business Law Program, University of Arizona (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2022-05-26)
    Karen J. Alter's Foreword describes how the history of international law is, to a large extent, the history of modern capitalism. Her regime complexity approach shows the political nature of international law and its distributional consequences. But international law also is a cultural product. In this sense, international law is dynamic and can be responsive to rapid social change. Any potential change of international law, therefore, must be understood historically and within the context of the changes in the ideas that led to an American "world order." Hence, I argue that the current transformation of international law is not caused solely by changing power imbalances and geopolitics, but also by cultural change. In this Afterword, I use Alter's provocatively ambitious Foreword to sketch what international law may say about social changes and pose that these changes also signal a breakdown in the structures that supported Alter's multilateral international law: a contrived view of the state; the use of law to normalize colonial inequities; the deployment of international organizations to advance the idea of individual choice; and international law as a primarily spatial (rather than temporal) phenomenon.
  • Anti-Asian Racism and Racial Justice in the Classroom

    Shin, Ryan; Bae, Jaehan; Song, Borim; University of Arizona (Informa UK Limited, 2022-08-22)
    This article discusses the urgent issues and concerns about anti-Asian racism in our society and provides several pedagogical strategies to counter anti-Asian racism. We begin by discussing the history and context of anti-Asian racism in the US, from which we trace the historical origins and contexts of anti-Asian racism, violence, and stereotypes in popular culture and media. After that, we share several anti-Asian racism teaching strategies and practices, drawn from and influenced by the creative artworks of Asian contemporary artists such as Lisa Wool-Rim Sjöblom, Amanda Phingbodhipakkiya, and Monyee Chau, who demonstrate subverting racism against Asians during the COVID-19 global pandemic. Finally, after engaging our students in anti-Asian racism lessons, we share their art projects and written testimonials about anti-Asian racism. As a result, we strongly encourage educators to use, in their art curriculum, both history and contemporary artworks by artists to address anti-Asian racism and social justice.
  • ‘Earning your scars’: An exploratory interview study of design for manufacturing at hardware startups

    Budinoff, Hannah D.; Kramer, Julia; Department of Systems and Industrial Engineering, University of Arizona (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2022-08-26)
    Although many design for manufacturing tools and methods have been developed, it is unclear if engineers at startups widely use these design support techniques. We interviewed twelve engineers employed at startups to better identify common practices related to design for manufacturing. Specifically, we sought to learn the design for manufacturing strategies and tools used, and the timing of considering manufacturing constraints—such as process cost and geometry restrictions—in startups’ new product development processes. Interviews were analyzed using an inductive coding approach. All interviewees viewed design for manufacturing as being necessary for a successful product launch, but the implementation of considering manufacturing constraints varied. Interviewees mainly learned of the importance of design for manufacturing through negative personal design experiences where they did not emphasize the consideration of manufacturing constraints, a process which was described as “earning scars.” Formal education was viewed by interviewees as having limited practical utility, and startups’ staffing and funding constraints contributed to informal new product development processes and design practices. We identified ten emergent informal design for manufacturing strategies employed at startups, with most strategies relying heavily on consulting external manufacturing experts. We noted only a limited use of design for manufacturing tools, such as manufacturing simulation software and cost modeling. Insights from this paper can lead to better educational practices, contribute to more contextualized advising of startups, and guide other resource-constrained design teams.
  • Reconfigurable Spatial-Mode Sorter for Super-Resolution Imaging

    Ozer, Itay; Grace, Michael R.; Guha, Saikat; James C. Wyant College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona (Optica Publishing Group, 2022)
    We build a reconfigurable spatial mode sorter for super resolution imaging using a spatial light modulator (SLM). Our system can easily adapt to sort different, mutually non-orthogonal, spatial mode bases.
  • When goodbyes matter: The conditional relationship between final conversations and symptoms of depression

    Cooper, R. Amanda; Segrin, Chris; Department of Communication, University of Arizona (Informa UK Limited, 2022-08-19)
    An online survey of 528 people who lost someone close to them in the last 5 years was used to test associations between having final conversations (FCs) and depression. The direct effect was nonsignificant, but there were two significant moderation effects. Time since bereavement moderated the FC–depression relationship; there was a negative relationship between FCs and depression shortly following bereavement, but no relationship after more time had passed. The age of the deceased also moderated this relationship; there was a negative relationship between FCs and depression when the deceased was older, but no relationship when the deceased was younger.
  • Evaluation of Different Wavelengths for Scattering-Based Light Sheet Microscopy

    Zhao, J.; Kulkarni, N.; Dobo, E.; Khan, M. J.; Yang, E.; Kang, D.; James C. Wyant College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona; Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Arizona (Optica Publishing Group, 2022)
    Scattering-based light sheet microscopy (sLSM) is a new microscopy technique that can visualize cellular details of the intact tissue. We developed a bench sLSM setup to investigate the optimal wavelength for tissue sLSM imaging.

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