• “Das Hätten sie mal Richtig Übersetzen Sollen!“ [“They Should've Translated that the Right Way!”] – Folk Myths and Fanscaping in German Dubbing

      Gramling, David; Warner, Chantelle; Ploschnitzki, Patrick; Colina, Sonia; von Ammon, Frieder (The University of Arizona., 2023)
      “Somebody translated it wrong at some point, and then everybody started talking that way.” is one of the many constantly perpetuated folk myths arising around dubbing, i.e., lip-synchronized audiovisual translation. This dissertation investigates this and other assumptions in a German-German context, especially the notion of “wrong translations” that is particularly present in fan-made review platforms of television dubbed into German. Contrasted with interviews with agents of the current German dubbing industry, the dissertation further explores online amateur commentary on canonical episodes of the US-American animated sitcom The Simpsons and the fan-translator relationship in a globalized, networked, enlightened context. Central to this research is the concept of fanscaping: unsolicited lay revisions of professional translations, usually generated on (proprietary) online platforms by enthusiast communities insisting, often inconsistently, on intercultural accuracy and semantic precision over translators’ deliberate, pragmatic compromises.
    • Enabling Rapid Response Observations in Time-Domain Astrophysics and the Science It Can Achieve

      Sand, David; Wyatt, Samuel D.; Matheson, Thomas; Melia, Fulvio; Rozo, Eduardo; Gralla, Samuel (The University of Arizona., 2023)
      Time-Domain astronomy is the study of astronomical objects whose brightnesses change as a function of time, and like the objects that it encompasses, the field is also constantly changing. With the expectations of large-scale surveys (e.g. ZTF and LSST) and alerts associated with non-localized events (gravitational waves), it must prepare to meet the challenges associated. Within this dissertation, we discuss the work done to address these needs within the community and locally at Steward Observatory, followed by the scientific results that rapid responses can produce. We present the Gravitational Wave Treasure Map, a tool designed to alleviate efforts in searching for counterparts associated with gravitational wave events. We describe the infrastructure established at Steward Observatory's telescopes by developing the software to facilitate rapid responses at the MMT along with efforts with the Arizona Robotic Telescope Network. And finally, we overview two SNe Ia studies that highlight the important science achieved when transients are discovered, classified, and characterized during the earliest times since their explosions. We conclude by discussing the future directions of the field of time-domain observational research, what is expected from observatories to achieve early science, and reflecting upon the ecosystem of the field.
    • Syllabification and Visual Word Segmentation in Spanish–English Bilinguals

      Simonet, Miquel; Asberry, Drake; Hammond, Michael; Ussishkin, Adam (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      This dissertation investigates intuitions about Spanish syllable structure and whether or not word segmentation strategies are affected by these syllabic intuitions. The study utilizes monolingual Spanish speakers, L1 Spanish speakers whoare L2 learners of English and L1 English speakers who are L2 learners of Spanish. For Spanish syllabic intuitions a two-alternative forced choice task is used to gain insights about the initial syllables of CV and CVC trisyllabic words. A visual letter sequence monitoring task is utilized to investigate the use of a syllable-based segmentation strategy when processing Spanish. Support is found for differing Spanish syllabic intuitions between L1 Spanish–L2 English and L1 English–L2 Spanish bilinguals. L1 Spanish speakers have been shown to use a syllable-based segmentation approach to Spanish word segmentation while L1 English speakers have shown only a slight sensitivity to the syllable’s role when segmenting in their L2. Lastly, previous studies in investigating the syllable-based segmentation strategy have included some auditory components, which may have provided additional help in some manner to participants. The current studies here replicate these findings utilizing a completely visual design, which indicates the plausibility of a visual experimental design to study phonological processes.
    • Towards Using Eye-Tracking and Consumer-Grade Electroencephalogram Devices To Detect Usability Issues in Mobile Applications

      Cui, Hong; Zhang, Limin; Bozgeyikli, Lila; Shmargad, Yotam; Peterson, Mary (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      Despite the importance of cognitive workload in examining the usability of smartphoneapplications and the popularity of smartphone usage globally, cognitive workload as one attribute of usability tends to be overlooked in Human Computer Interaction (HCI) studies. Moreover, limited studies that have examined the cognitive workload aspect often measured some summative workloads using subjective measures (e.g., questionnaires). A significant limitation of subjective measures is that they can only assess the overall, subject-perceived cognitive workload after the procedures/tasks have been completed. Such measurements do not reflect the real-time workload fluctuation during the procedures. They, therefore, are not useful for pinpointing poor designs in user interfaces that are associated with cognitive workload surges in the user’s brain during a task. This dissertation used mixed methods to empirically study (1) the reliability of an eye-tracking device (i.e., Tobii Pro Nano) and a low-cost electroencephalogram (EEG) device (i.e., MUSE 2) for detecting real-time cognitive workload changes during N-back tasks, and (2) the potential to use the increased cognitive workload detected during tasks to pinpoint user interface areas containing potential usability issues in mobile applications. Results suggest that (1) the EEG measurements collected by MUSE 2 are not very useful as indicators of cognitive workload changes in our setting; (2) eye movement measurements collected by Tobii are useful for monitoring cognitive workload fluctuations and tracking down interface design issues in a smartphone setting; (3) more specifically, the maximum pupil diameter is the preeminent indicator of cognitive workload surges; and (4) cognitive workload surges may be caused by design issues. One usability issue has been detected and fixed this way in a mobile application designed by a National Science Foundation (NSF) sponsored project. In conclusion, the pupil diameter measure combined with other subjective ratings would provide a comprehensive user experience assessment of mobile applications. They can also be used to verify the successfulness of a user interface design solution in improving user experience.
    • Exploring Argumentation in the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory

      Talanquer, Vicente; Petritis, Steven; Bolger, Molly; Christie, Hamish; Jewett, John; Kelley, Colleen (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      Recent research emphasis has been placed on studying how students engage in scientific argumentative reasoning in the chemistry laboratory setting. Although several studies have evaluated the quality and characterized the structure of student arguments following the claims, evidence, and rationale (CER) framework, little is known about the influence of various laboratory factors on student reasoning. In this study, we seek to better understand what factors affect student argumentation in laboratories and how these factors foster or hinder students’ integration of core chemistry concepts and laboratory data. We have identified several factors associated with students’ laboratory experiences and aim to gain additional insight by exploring how students’ use of specific chemical data in various types of experiments impacts both the nature and quality of their post-lab arguments. Ultimately, this work highlights the need for explicit consideration of these factors in designing opportunities for undergraduate chemistry laboratory students to engage in productive argumentation from evidence. In the first part of this project, we analyzed the arguments generated by college organic chemistry students working on a substitution reaction experiment that was framed in two distinct ways: predict-verify and observe-infer. The arguments constructed by students in their post-laboratory reports under each laboratory frame were characterized by paying attention to both domain-specific and domain-general features. Our analysis revealed significant differences in the chemical concepts and ideas that students under the two conditions invoked, as well as in the level of integration, specificity, alignment, and type of reasoning observed within and across different argument components. Our findings highlight the importance of paying attention to how experiments are framed in terms of the goals, procedures, information, and tools available to students as these decisions can have a major impact on the nature of the claims students make, their use of evidence, and the approach to reasoning that they follow. Building on our previous work involving activity framing, the second part of this project involved the analysis of student arguments produced following eight experiments that comprise the first semester of a college organic chemistry laboratory to identify other factors that may significantly affect the nature and quality of student argumentation in undergraduate organic chemistry labs. Our analysis revealed no trends on the effect of experiment order or general type on the quality of student arguments; however, the amount and types of data sources as well as the level of scaffolding provided both had an impact on student argument quality. Although the undergraduate laboratory offers a ripe opportunity for students to engage in argument from evidence, laboratory activity involves a complex web of components each with the potential to affect productive and quality sensemaking. Our findings highlight the importance of explicit consideration of various laboratory factors and their impact on how students express their chemical reasoning through written argumentation.
    • Partitioning Components for Dimension Reduction for Compositional Data

      Billheimer, Dean; Koslucher, Amber; LaFluer, Bonnie; Bedrick, Ed; Zhang, Helen (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      Compositional data are vectors of proportions describing the relative abundance of eachcomponent to the total. High-dimensionality of many compositional data sets, often with more components than observations, has caused an increased demand for capturing observed patterns of variability through lower dimensions. Current dimension reduction methods applicable to compositional data are either difficult to interpret or lack a statistical model. Amalgamation, the summation of two components, and subcomposition, a subset of the original components, both serve as straightforward and interpretable ways of combining components in all applications of compositional data analysis and reduce the number of components in the composition. This paper proposes achieving reduced dimensions by partitioning components, which simultaneously models the subcompositions and amalgamation. Partition selection was proposed by maximizing the posterior probability of the Partition Logistic Normal distribution developed by Aitchison (1986). This dimension reduction methodology was then extended to perturbation, which characterizes compositional change. Perturbation responses may capture treatment effects, age effects on skin microbiota, and changes across time. Reducing the dimensions of an observed perturbation aims at capturing groups of components that were perturbed similarly. This paper provided a new reference component to correctly interpret the perturbed components and proposed reducing the dimensions by partitioning the perturbed components given the latent variables in the Gaussian mixture model which accounted for the uncertainty induced from estimating the compositional centers. These methods were applied to a skin microbiota studying an age perturbation by contrasting children and mothers.
    • Electrophysiological Signatures of Spatial and Temporal Coding in Humans

      Ekstrom, Arne; Liang, Mingli; Isham, Eve; Cowen, Stephen (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      Space and time are two cornerstones of memory and navigation. However, how spatial and temporal information contribute to spatial and mnemonic representations is still poorly understood in humans. One of the neural signatures in humans related to memory and navigation are neural oscillations in cortical and subcortical regions (such as the hippocampus). The presence of cortical and hippocampal theta oscillations predicts better subsequent memory and more efficient spatial navigation, but the exact relationship between neural oscillations and the coding of spatial distances and temporal durations are unknown. In this dissertation, I will provide empirical evidence to help fill this gap and to better the understanding of how cortical and hippocampal neural oscillations support the coding of spatiotemporal information. In Chapter 1, I provide a brief summary of scalp electroencephalogram (EEG), intracranial EEG, mobile EEG, hippocampal theta oscillations, frontal midline theta oscillations, and behavioral models for spatial and temporal cognition. In Chapter 2, I report the feasibility of recording navigation-related frontal-midline theta oscillations using noninvasive scalp EEG in healthy humans using a mobile EEG approach. In Chapter 3 and 4, I report two investigations of how neural oscillations code spatial distances and temporal durations in healthy humans using mobile scalp EEG (Chapter 3) and in patients with hippocampal implanted electrodes (Chapter 4). In Chapter 5, I summarize how the understanding of oscillatory codes for space and time can inspire the behavioral and clinical applications for future research.
    • Rethinking Urban Agriculture: Environmental Casteism, Subjectivity, and the Labor Politics of Food Production in Mumbai

      Doshi, Sapana; Liverman, Diana; Garud, Pradnya; Osborne, Tracey; Reader, Tristan; Banister, Jeffrey (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      In urban India, food gardening has proliferated among upper-caste, middle-class people to mitigate food safety and self-sufficiency concerns. In the past two decades in cities like Mumbai, organic gardening communities have engaged in food production in private homes and apartments. The fears and anxieties of “unsafe” food and degrading urban ecologies have driven upper-caste, middle-class people to intervene through food gardening. In Mumbai, urban farming along railway tracks was initiated as a state-driven measure to deal with food insecurity and was later formalized through Green Revolution policies. Presently, seasonal, rural, lower-caste migrant farmers grow food along 400 acres of public railway lands to sustain their livelihoods. These farmers have faced lawsuits from elite constituents over the use of sewage water, pesticides, and fertilizers to grow vegetables.This research examines how the complex interplay of caste, class, and gender shape practices and discourses for differently situated groups involved in urban agriculture. Using archival and qualitative methods, this dissertation shows that urban agriculture is not a universal good. Rather, it has served to deepen caste domination and environmental inequality through a process I call “environmental casteism.” I trace agrarian transformation in different historical junctures to demonstrate that 1) caste and class are fundamentally interconnected through land and caste labor relations in food production across the rural-urban divide; 2) urban organic food gardening initiatives are contingent on caste-based ideologies, spatial segregation, notions of purity and pollution, and gendered reproductive labor; and 3) caste-based waste labor is reworked as a practice for environmental sustainability.
    • Steady-State and Ultrafast Optical Properties of Tripyrrindione Ligand and Metal Complexes

      Huxter, Vanessa M.; Swain, Alicia; Monti, Oliver; Sandhu, Arvinder; Sanov, Andrei; Schwartz, Steven (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      While the photophysics of other oligopyrorrolic molecules, especially tetrapyrroles, have been the focus of extensive research, tripyrroles have remained relatively unstudied. This may be due to the previous difficulties in synthesis, difficulties in isolation from naturally occurring sources, and comparatively low relative natural abundance. Hexaethyl tripyrrindione (H3TD1) is a tripyrrolic molecule that is capable of binding metals and forming square planar neutral radical complexes that are stable at room temperature and redox active. Steady-state absorption and emission and time-resolved methods are used to measure both the H3TD1 ligand and H3TD1 bound to copper, palladium, and zinc. The time-resolved optical measurements include time correlated single photon counting, (TCSPC) fluorescence upconversion, transient absorption (TA), and two dimensional electronic (2DES). Solute-solvent hydrogen-bonding interactions play a large role in the optical properties of H3TD1. In solvents with a low hydrogen-bonding affinity, H3TD1 favors the formation of dimers, with quick relaxation times of the excited state. In the presence of solvents capable of hydrogen-bond donating and accepting, H3TD1 favors a monomer state with slow relaxation times. H3TD1 readily coordinates with metal centers. The metal choice of the metal-TD1 complex plays a large role in the optical properties. The Zn-TD1 metal exhibits fluorescence emission in the presence of polar solvents. The steady-state and time-resolved optical properties for Zn-TD1 are highly solvent-dependent, especially in pyridine which is capable of strong axial interactions with the metal center. Cu- and Pd- TD1 neutral radical complexes as well as oxidized Cu-TD1 and oxidized Pd-TD1 were investigated. None of the neutral radical or oxidized Cu and Pd complexes are fluorescent. Excited state dynamics for the Cu-TD1 and Pd-TD1 complexes are relatively solvent insensitive with fast relaxation of the ground state bleach. However, the oxidized Pd complex shows much longer timescales. Oxidation of the complexes removes an electron from the ligand, changing the overall spin state of the complex. At low temperatures, the Cu-TD1 complex dimerizes through pi-pi interaction of ligand based electronic spins, modifying the observed dynamics. 2DES measurements investigate these dynamics and to understand the basic photophysics of the Cu-TD1 dimer system.
    • Information Analysis of Spatiotemporal Data Stream–Models, Algorithms and Evaluations

      Liu, Jian; Yuan, Yifei; Son, Young-Jun; Zhou, Qiang (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      The Spatiotemporal data stream has been widely used in different applications for system surveillance, prediction, and optimization. In the past decade, the advancement of sensing and data storage technologies has made spatiotemporal data more achievable and enlarges spatiotemporal data’s scale greatly. It brings opportunities as well as challenges to spatiotemporal data steam analysis. Different spatiotemporal data stream problems have their unique methodologies, but they all share one major difficulty: high dimensionality. Some of them are data-intensive in spatial space, which needs modeling and feature extraction to reduce spatial dimensions. Others are data-intensive in temporal space, which needs temporal dimension reduction. This dissertation investigates spatiotemporal data modeling with one spatial intensive application and one temporal intensive application. The spatial intensive application is the border surveillance with Unmanned Vehicles (UVs), where multiple UVs collaboratively collect image information of a target area in real-time. Millions of pixel data are observed at each timestamp from multiple UVs. The temporal intensive application is the water distribution system (WDS), where hydraulic sensors are deployed in the underground water pipe network. Each sensor measures hundreds of thousands of hydraulic readings per day. In the UVs surveillance application, a grid-based model is proposed to aggregate UAV’s global low-resolution observation and UGVs’ local high-resolution observation, which extracts crowd dynamics information from spatially heterogeneous high dimensional data. These extracted crowd dynamics data are then processed by a proposed Bayesian dynamics model for real-time crowd tracking and prediction. These models are validated and compared with benchmarks by simulation studies and a field test. In the WDS application, a penalized free-knot B-spline model is proposed to model high dimensional temporal profile data, reducing temporal dimension from hundreds of thousands of timestamps into dozens of profile coefficients. A real-time anomaly detection model is then proposed based on these modeled profiles. This model detects system anomaly (i.e., water pipe burst) from spatiotemporal profile based on a Bayesian basis-expansion model. One simulated dummy WDS and one simulated WDS at Austin, TX, are used for model validation and comparison.
    • Networked Parasocial Relationships: Examining the Contributions of Ego-Networks and Identity on Positive Parasocial Relationships and their Importance

      Rains, Steve; Lutovsky, Bethany R.; Stevens Aubrey, Jennifer; Pitts, Margaret J.; Bighash, Leila (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      Parasocial relationships (PSRs) examine the one-way, imagined relationships that takes place between an individual and a media figure. Although these relationships exist with media figures, research has found that they tend to resemble the relationships that individuals form within their social lives. This study examined two concepts of parasocial research, the formation of positive PSRs and PSR dependence, using social network analysis. This analysis method was proposed to be a key element to settle the debate between the competing interpersonal theories regarding parasocial relationships and extend the knowledge of why these relationships exist. However, results of an online survey recruited through television fandom subreddits indicated that social network structure was not a substantial determinant of the creation and dependence on these relationships. The methods used in this study were unable to explain the inconsistent results found for the compensatory and complementary hypotheses. Additional analyses were run examining the role social network analysis and identity played in the parasocial experience. Significant results were found indicating that network analysis related to identity and overall identity salience of the ego and alters were reliably related to positive PSR formation and PSR dependence. Therefore, the identity of the ego and the network alters played a role in the formation and dependence on positive PSRs. The implications of these findings on the understanding of parasocial relationships and areas of future research are discussed.
    • Reimagining Existing Technologies for Faster Time-to-Detection of Biomarkers of Interest

      Yoon, Jeong-Yeol; Day, Alexander; Kim, Minkyu; Zenhausern, Frederic; Matsunaga, Terry (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      With the goal of reducing the overall assay times of key diagnostic technologies, four platforms have been developed over the course of several years. Each platform seeks to take a gold standard diagnostic test for a given target of interest and reduce the time-to-results. The primary gold standard techniques being challenged are cell subpopulation analysis via flow cytometry, bacteria/virus detection via PCR/RT-PCR, and microRNA detection via RT-PCR. The first diagnostic platform utilizes a smartphone-based device to both characterize natural killer cell subpopulation ratio and quantify circulating natural killer cell and IL-2 cytokine concentrations in blood. This machine learning-based analysis used the cell chromatography profile of samples that had flowed through the paper chip and had an overall accuracy of 89% at correctly classifying the CD56bright: CD56dim ratio without the need for complex instrumentation beyond a paper microfluidic chip, a smartphone microscope attachment, and a simple 3D-printed enclosure within a 10-minute assay. Meanwhile, the flow rate-based cell/cytokine quantification aspect of the platform allowed for the detection of just 98 IU/mL IL-2 and 68 natural killer cells/mL, allowing for sensitive and accurate quantification of circulating biomarkers tied to patient immune response. The next three platforms all contain the use of emulsified loop-mediated isothermal amplification (eLAMP) reactions to compartmentalize the reaction process to increase specificity while also reducing assay time due to requiring smaller reaction volume changes over the course of the assay. These platforms monitor these reactions using light scatter technology, which allows for real-time monitoring without the use of a target-specific bioreceptor or fluorophore, thus reducing the overall cost of the reaction. The first of these three platforms was developed to detect whole bacteria (E. Coli O157:H7 in this case) with a limit of detection of 103 CFU/µL using either an OceanOptics spectrophotometer or a smartphone camera to monitor the light scatter change within as little as 3 minutes. This platform was also able to provide a higher assay specificity when compared to conventional LAMP reactions. The second eLAMP platform was developed with the goal of rapid yet sensitive SARS-CoV-2 detection in mind. By using the eLAMP assay mechanism, we could combine the rapid time-to-results of conventional antigen tests with the sensitivity/specificity of RT-PCR tests. The platform was able to detect as little as 10 viral copies/µL in saliva in just 5 minutes. Finally, the last eLAMP platform was built by making a minor modification to an existing real-time fluorometer, thus removing the need for an engineering-heavy skillset to build the technology. Within this fluorometer, microRNAs could be used as a primer in an emulsified LAMP reaction, thus controlling the rate of reaction based on the presence of the microRNA of interest. With this platform, the successful detection of 1 fM miR-21 could be made in just 66% of the time of a conventional LAMP reaction, and this assay also proved to be specific to single base-pair differences in the microRNA target, rendering it highly specific.
    • Holding Space: A Case Study of an Alternative High School's Gender and Sexuality Alliance

      McCaslin, Mary; Clough, Lauren Taylor; Legg Burross, Heidi; Durán, Leah (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      Gender and sexuality alliances (GSAs), clubs aimed at supporting and affirming LGBTQIA+ youth within the school setting, can serve a wide variety of purposes for queer and trans youth. GSAs can provide a community of belonging or even act as sites of youth activism within their school and beyond. The present case study takes an ethnographic approach to examining one alternative high school’s GSA during the midst of a tumultuous change in school ownership and school leadership. Through observations of the GSA and the school at large, changes in school culture are examined across the span of two years. During Year One, the school was fostering a familial culture of support, providing the many under-supported students at the school with necessary resources such as food, transportation, and counseling. During Year Two, the change in school ownership began to impact the school culture, leading into a culture of anonymity and apathy in which these previously assumed resources were no longer available to students. Using the GSA as an anchor to ground the study, I explore how the shifts within the GSA are reflected in the changes within the school at large. The concept of holding space became a central theme related to the school culture and the physical and figurative spaces within the GSA and school are discussed. Lastly, implications for research on school culture and LGBTQIA+ students are discussed.
    • Using Linguistic Metrics and Task Characteristics to Investigate and Manage Group Deception

      Nunamaker, Jay; Burgoon, Judee; Dorn, Bradley; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Bin (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      Interactive deception among groups of humans regularly occurs. Barriers to studying this type of interaction include practical constraints as well as experimental design challenges that balance realism of deception with ground truth knowledge that deception is occurring. As our ability to capture and process more aspects of this type of interaction grows with the use of computers, so do opportunities for understanding and managing deception. This dissertation begins with a review of linguistic characteristics of group speech that have been found to have some relationship with deception. Then, this dissertation characterizes a deceptive group interaction, using a lens model to consider individual and interactive components that relate to cue generation, deception judgements, and group performance. This dissertation then describes an experimental method and technology tool created to facilitate the study of this type of interaction. The dataset used for this dissertation was collected using this tool and involved participants completing a hidden identity game and providing periodic ratings of other participants with whom they interacted. Lastly, this dissertation considers performance of both automated methods and performance of actual individuals in the hidden identity game and explores reasons why certain cues and individuals performed better or worse than expected using simulation and exploratory analyses.
    • Exploring the Electronic Health Record (EHR) as a Communication Channel that Influences the Workflow of the Nurse in Response to a Clinical Event

      Shea, Kimberly D.; Roberts, Monte Louis; Williams, Deborah K.; Loescher, Lois J. (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      The purpose of this qualitative descriptive research was to explore responding (RSRN) and receiving nurses’ (RCRN) perspectives on messages delivered from the EHR in response to a clinical event (CE). This study had two aims: 1) Explore nurses’ utilization of the EHR as a communication channel that provides patient data for the nurse to process and implement into workflow. 2) Explore nurses’ perspectives on their approach to processing EHR data in response to a CE. The EHR as an ineffective communication tool has been studied. However, little is known how the EHR functions as a communication channel for nurses to access, retrieve and process data and information for communication. Using Shannon’s Information Theory (1949), semi-structured interviews were constructed to explore nurses described perspective of screens accessed, data and information processed, strengths and limitations of current EHR, and recommendations for EHR improvement. Twenty medical-surgical nurses participated in a ZoomHealth recorded interview. The general inductive approach and content analysis were used to analyze verbatim transcripts and establish patterns and themes. Transcript segments were grouped into responding nurses (RSRN) or receiving nurses (RSRN) caring for a patient experiencing or post CE. Thirty-two thematic units were described by participants, among themes explored two major themes were identified by participants: time and process of data into information. Significant time is spent accessing and retrieving data and information from the EHR. After retrieval participants struggled to describe how data and information was organized into a usable form to implement into workflow. The role of the nurse changes how messages from the EHR are accessed, retrieved, and processed into information. Potential data and information processing models are proposed.
    • Exploring the Development and Persistence of the Eastern Puebloan Economy: Rio Grande Glaze Ware as a Window on Regional Interaction

      Mills, Barbara J.; Giomi, Evan; Eckert, Suzanne L.; Montgomery, Lindsay; Gosner, Kevin; Killick, David J. (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      This dissertation uses multiple lines of ceramic evidence to examine continuity in the economic organization of Eastern Pueblo communities along the Rio Grande from the late pre-contact period (ca. A.D. 1300-1598) into the early period of Spanish colonialism (A.D. 1598-1680). One of the major decorated ceramic traditions of the Eastern Pueblo region, Rio Grande Glaze Ware, was in constant production from the early 14th century well into the Spanish Colonial Period. Production only ceased sometime after the Pueblo Revolt of 1680. The production and consumption of Rio Grande Glaze Ware vessels was heavily embedded in a regional network of relationships among Pueblo villages. As such, continuity in the production of Rio Grande Glaze Ware vessels under Spanish colonial rule suggests that the network of relationships in which glaze ware production was embedded likely also persisted. Using a combination of typological and archaeometric data, I employed social network analysis to both evaluate the development of a regional network of interaction surrounding Rio Grande Glaze Ware production and consumption and to evaluate the degree to which the structure of that network persisted into the early Spanish Colonial Period. The techniques of single layer network analysis were applied to evaluate change over time in the structure of regional interactions in the greater Southwest and northern Mexico, as revealed by patterns of ceramic consumption. From this analysis we identify the development of distinct regional patterns of interaction in the Western and Eastern Pueblo regions over the course of the 15th century. The results of new archaeometric testing—both petrographic analysis of rock temper and isotopic analysis of lead glaze paint—are also presented, helping to further refine existing understanding of material diversity within the broad category of Rio Grande Glaze Ware vessels. These results are particularly relevant in identifying a distinct pattern of lead ore use by potters at villages in the Lower Rio Grande region. Finally, I present a case-study evaluating the utility of multilayer network techniques in better understanding of the complexity of regional interaction in the project area and study period. Multilayer network techniques allow for a synthesis of typological data with the two different lines of archaeometric data collected for this project. Results of the multilayer analysis indicate that the structure of interaction among Pueblo villages remained largely unchanged from the 15th century into the early Spanish Colonial Period. Results indicate that Pueblo people found a way to maintain a regional system of interaction despite the impact of Spanish colonial appropriation of Pueblo labor.
    • The Role of ROP16 in Type III Toxoplasma gondii Tachyzoite and Bradyzoite Stages

      Koshy, Anita A.; Kuhns, Michael S.; Kochanowsky, Joshua Andrew; Vedantam, Gayatri; Campos, Samuel K. (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      In humans, clinically relevant disease involving Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular parasite, results from T. gondii’s life-long persistence in the central nervous system (CNS). Successful T. gondii persistence is driven by the ability of the parasite to evade the immune response during acute infection and disseminate throughout the body. Once the parasite has disseminated to the CNS it switches from a fast-replicating form, the tachyzoite, to a slow-growing encysted form, the bradyzoite. Additionally, an emerging body of studies indicates that the genotype of the infecting T. gondii strain can influence CNS disease outcomes. These differences are thought to be driven by polymorphic effector proteins that can modulate different immune responses in a strain-specific manner. The work in this dissertation will address the role of one such polymorphic effector protein, rhoptry protein 16 (ROP16). Most work on ROP16 has been done in a hypervirulent strain of T. gondii where it has little effect on acute virulence in mice. In addition, the hypervirulent nature of the strain means studies on chronic infection cannot be done. Recent work revealed a role for ROP16 in a less virulent strain during in vivo infection. To further address the role of ROP16 in this less virulent strain in both tachyzoites and bradyzoites, we used a panel of ROP16 mutants and infected cells cultured in both tachyzoite and bradyzoite growth conditions. We have found that during tachyzoite growth ROP16 facilitates parasite growth and survival in a strain-specific manner by reducing host cell reactive oxygen species (ROS) through the activation of a host cell transcription factor Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 6 (STAT6). We also observed that under bradyzoite-inducing conditions ROP16 facilitates encystment through the activation of STAT6 in vitro and that, compared to wild-type mice, STAT6 knockout (STAT6KO) mice have fewer CNS cysts despite having similar parasite burdens.
    • The League of Composers Wind Quintet: Its Members, History, Works, and Role in Inter-American Diplomacy

      Fraker, Sara; Dietz, William; Hursey, Daniel Ray; Glazier, Jackie (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      The League of Composers Wind Quintet (LCWQ) consisted of five performers who were also prolific American composers. Assembled in 1941, the LCWQ was carefully selected from across the nation and dispatched on a two-month tour throughout Latin America under the auspices of the Office of Inter-American Affairs. Although little information remains about the quintet or their Latin American tour, it is the members, music, and the mission of this short-lived ensemble that calls for examination and research. Most of the pieces composed and performed by the members of the group for the tour have fallen from the performance repertoire of present-day wind quintets, and indeed may be lost. However, some of the works have been published. This study will document the short history of the LCWQ, its tour, and the music performed.
    • Nurses Leaving the Profession in the First Two Years

      Rainbow, Jessica; Tate, Stephanie M.; Brewer, Barbara; Martin-Plank, Lori (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      Background: Within the first two years after graduating nursing school and beginning work, 33% of nurses leave the profession and do not return. This phenomenon is not new. It was first written about in the 1970s, nor is it unique to the United States, nurses throughout the world are leaving at high numbers. Despite such low retention, little research has been done in this area to discover the causes of nurses leaving the profession. Method: A qualitative descriptive method was used. Seventeen participants were recruited using social media for interviews. Recruitment was continued until saturation occurred. Transcripts were analyzed using inductive content analysis. Results: This study found that nurses are leaving the profession due to working long hours, being overworked and a lack of management response to these concerns. Individuals reported that they were working over 50 hours a week, sometime seven days a week and could not get a day off which interfered with family time. Management was not responsive to decreasing the amount of time that nurses were scheduled. Factors that are not contributing to participants leaving the profession were COVID-19, education, or nurse residency programs. Conclusion: The literature suggests that nurses leaving the profession is related to education level, not having a residency program and work environment. With a projected nursing shortage, retaining nurses is paramount. Based on the results of this study, nurses can be retained if management is responsive to them having input into their schedule, pays them on time and allows for time off to be with family.
    • Nonuniform Constellation Shaping Schemes for Short Distance and Mid-reach Fiber-optics Link Transmissions

      Djordjevic, Ivan B.; Han, Xiao; Tandon, Ravi; Zhang, Zheshen (The University of Arizona., 2022)
      Among various industries including IT, finance, and health care, the vast demand of big data and analytics have led to requirements in high efficient transmission. Coherent optical transmission has become the standard approach, and recently researchers also have paid attention to the PAM signaling in data center because of its simplicity. For either modulation method, the traditional uniform distributions have a large gap to the Shannon limit, which restricts the efficient channel utilization. Nonuniform constellation shaping is an energy efficiency enhancement method. Using probabilistic shaping and geometric shaping scheme we can reduce the gap to Shannon limit by mimicking a Gaussian-like shape of constellation. FEC coding has been demonstrated to be an excellent method to correct the bit errors and increase the channel reliability; in particular, the LDPC code represents a good FEC candidate for the high information rate demands. This dissertation demonstrates the nonuniform constellation shaping schemes application for different modulation formats, along with LDPC coding and pulse shaping schemes, to satisfy never ending data demands in the various fields. In this dissertation, we investigate the application of non-uniform constellation shaping schemes into different modulation formats for both IM/DD and coherent detection. The proposed non-uniform shaping scheme is based on both probabilistic shaping and geometric shaping, the modulation formats under investigation include M-ary PAM, M-ary QAM, and 4-dimentional (4D) modulation formats. The main novelty of our work is the joint use of constellation shaping and pulse shaping schemes, together with LDPC coding.